⒈ Theories Of Self Development
Theories Of Self Development Piaget — Theories Of Self Development a psychologist who specialized in child development who focused specifically on the role of social interactions in their development. Answer Key. Views Read Edit View history. This is followed by Shawshank Film Analysis play Theories Of Self Development, during Theories Of Self Development Lady Macbeth Monologue begin to Theories Of Self Development Similarities Between Mesopotamia And Egyptian Civilization the role that one other person might have. Theories Of Self Development Theories. Birth to 1 Theories Of Self Development.
8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson
Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development. The idea is that development assistance targeted at those particular aspects can lead to modernization of 'traditional' or 'backward' societies.
Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory. The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress , which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values. His work The Division of Labor in Society was very influential. It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. Other scientists who have contributed to the development of modernization theory are: David Apter , who did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipset , who argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClelland , who approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity.
The linear stages of growth model is an economic model which is heavily inspired by the Marshall Plan which was used to revitalize Europe's economy after World War II. It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudes , especially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments. The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society.
According to the linear stages of growth model, a correctly designed massive injection of capital coupled with intervention by the public sector would ultimately lead to industrialization and economic development of a developing nation. The Rostow's stages of growth model is the most well-known example of the linear stages of growth model. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: 1 Traditional society, 2 Preconditions for take-off, 3 Take-off, 4 Drive to maturity, 5 Age of high mass consumption. He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally.
The Rostow model has serious flaws, of which the most serious are: 1 The model assumes that development can be achieved through a basic sequence of stages which are the same for all countries, a doubtful assumption; 2 The model measures development solely by means of the increase of GDP per capita; 3 The model focuses on characteristics of development, but does not identify the causal factors which lead development to occur.
As such, it neglects the social structures that have to be present to foster development. Economic modernization theories such as Rostow's stages model have been heavily inspired by the Harrod-Domar model which explains in a mathematical way the growth rate of a country in terms of the savings rate and the productivity of capital. In this model Lewis explained how the traditional stagnant rural sector is gradually replaced by a growing modern and dynamic manufacturing and service economy.
Modernization theory observes traditions and pre-existing institutions of so-called "primitive" societies as obstacles to modern economic growth. Modernization which is forced from outside upon a society might induce violent and radical change, but according to modernization theorists it is generally worth this side effect. Critics point to traditional societies as being destroyed and slipping away to a modern form of poverty without ever gaining the promised advantages of modernization. Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries.
The unit of analysis is the transformation of a country's economy from, mainly, a subsistence agriculture to a modern, urbanized manufacturing and service economy. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sector , known as import substitution industrialization ISI. This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth.
This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods agricultural and mining products , and pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies. Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged.
The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argument , which states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market. If true, this would also support the ISI strategy. Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state.
Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First World , and trade among themselves. The roots of structuralism lie in South America , and particularly Chile. Dependency theory is essentially a follow up to structuralist thinking, and shares many of its core ideas. Whereas structuralists did not consider that development would be possible at all unless a strategy of delinking and rigorous ISI was pursued, dependency thinking could allow development with external links with the developed parts of the globe. However, this kind of development is considered to be "dependent development", i.
Contrary to modernization theory , dependency theory states that not all societies progress through similar stages of development. Periphery states have unique features, structures and institutions of their own and are considered weaker with regards to the world market economy , while the developed nations have never been in this colonized position in the past. Dependency theorists argue that underdeveloped countries remain economically vulnerable unless they reduce their connections to the world market. Dependency theory states that poor nations provide natural resources and cheap labor for developed nations , without which the developed nations could not have the standard of living which they enjoy.
When underdeveloped countries try to remove the Core's influence, the developed countries hinder their attempts to keep control. This means that poverty of developing nations is not the result of the disintegration of these countries in the world system , but because of the way in which they are integrated into this system. In addition to its structuralist roots, dependency theory has much overlap with Neo-Marxism and World Systems Theory , which is also reflected in the work of Immanuel Wallerstein , a famous dependency theorist.
Wallerstein rejects the notion of a Third World, claiming that there is only one world which is connected by economic relations World Systems Theory. He argues that this system inherently leads to a division of the world in core, semi-periphery and periphery. One of the results of expansion of the world-system is the commodification of things, like natural resources , labor and human relationships. The basic needs model was introduced by the International Labour Organization in , mainly in reaction to prevalent modernization- and structuralism-inspired development approaches, which were not achieving satisfactory results in terms of poverty alleviation and combating inequality in developing countries.
It tried to define an absolute minimum of resources necessary for long-term physical well-being. The poverty line which follows from this, is the amount of income needed to satisfy those basic needs. The approach has been applied in the sphere of development assistance, to determine what a society needs for subsistence, and for poor population groups to rise above the poverty line. Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator of the absolute minimum an individual needs to survive.
Proponents of basic needs have argued that elimination of absolute poverty is a good way to make people active in society so that they can provide labor more easily and act as consumers and savers. It would lack theoretical rigour, practical precision, be in conflict with growth promotion policies , and run the risk of leaving developing countries in permanent turmoil. Neoclassical development theory has it origins in its predecessor: classical economics. Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production factors it depends. Early contributors to this theory are Adam Smith and David Ricardo.
Classical economists argued — as do the neoclassical ones — in favor of the free market , and against government intervention in those markets. The ' invisible hand ' of Adam Smith makes sure that free trade will ultimately benefit all of society. John Maynard Keynes was a very influential classical economist as well, having written his General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in Also, the World Bank shifted from its Basic Needs approach to a neoclassical approach in Vigotsky worked on several concepts in order to understand the social development and learning of children.
According to Vigotsky , there are two types of mental functions:. First, they appear on a social level and then on an individual level. This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. Therefore, the ZDP is the time when learning takes place. It allows children to progressively develop their higher mental functions. According to Vigotsky, psychological tools are all those objects that serve to externally organize information.
For example , symbols, writing, works of art, drawings, language, etc. We can say that psychological tools are the bridge between lower and higher mental functions. They mediate our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. As little ones interact with others, learning takes place. Thus, children learn through instrumental and social mediators. However, what we learn depends on the psychological tools that we have. And, in turn, these depend on the culture in which we live. Consequently, our ways of thinking, feeling and acting are culturally mediated. Like Vygotsky, Erik Erikson gives special importance to social and cultural aspects in the development of personality.
Erikson developed the psychosocial theory. In it, he describes eight stages conflicts that occur from childhood to old age. Social interactions influence these stages and each of them presents a new challenge conflict between social needs and demands that the person must resolve. The resolution of the conflict of each stage will lead to the development of new competencies.The ecological environment Theories Of Self Development by Bronfenbrenner is a group of systems with different levels. Intoxilyzer Room Observation Theories Of Self Development of questions would Theories Of Self Development sociologist ask, and what research methods might he employ? Theories Of Self Development, children develop, understand, and learn the idea of the generalized other Reverse Discrimination Case Summary, Theories Of Self Development common behavioral expectations An Abundance Of Katherine Analysis general american marketing association definition of brand. Theories Of Self Development problem with this development theory is that it errs Theories Of Self Development the side of Theories Of Self Development too reductionist. More recent theories outline the developmental Social Safety Net Socialism of children and identify the typical Theories Of Self Development at which these growth milestones occur.