❤❤❤ Colonialism Vs Nonconformism

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Colonialism Vs Nonconformism

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Portuguese successes led to Spanish financing of a mission by Christopher Columbus in to explore an alternative route to Asia, by sailing west. When Columbus eventually made landfall in the Caribbean Antilles he believed he had reached the coast of India, and that the people he encountered there were Indians with red skin. This is why Native Americans have been called Indians or red-Indians. In truth, Columbus had arrived on a continent that was new to the Europeans, the Americas. After Columbus' first trips, competing Spanish and Portuguese claims to new territories and sea routes were solved with the Treaty of Tordesillas in , which divided the world outside of Europe in two areas of trade and exploration, between the Iberian kingdoms of Castile and Portugal along a north—south meridian, leagues west of Cape Verde.

According to this international agreement, the larger part of the Americas and the Pacific Ocean were open to Spanish exploration and colonization, while Africa, the Indian Ocean and most of Asia were assigned to Portugal. The boundaries specified by the Treaty of Tordesillas were put to the test in when Ferdinand Magellan and his Spanish sailors among other Europeans , sailing for the Spanish Crown became the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean, [22] reaching Guam and the Philippines, parts of which the Portuguese had already explored, sailing from the Indian Ocean.

The two by now global empires, which had set out from opposing directions, had finally met on the other side of the world. The conflicts that arose between both powers were finally solved with the Treaty of Zaragoza in , which defined the areas of Spanish and Portuguese influence in Asia, establishing the anti meridian, or line of demarcation on the other side of the world. During the 16th century the Portuguese continued to press both eastwards and westwards into the Oceans.

Towards Asia they made the first direct contact between Europeans and the peoples inhabiting present day countries such as Mozambique , Madagascar , Sri Lanka , Malaysia , Indonesia , East Timor , China, and finally Japan. In Asia, the Portuguese encountered ancient and well populated societies, and established a seaborne empire consisting of armed coastal trading posts along their trade routes such as Goa , Malacca and Macau , so they had relatively little cultural impact on the societies they engaged. In the Western Hemisphere, the European colonization involved the emigration of large numbers of settlers, soldiers and administrators intent on owning land and exploiting the apparently primitive as perceived by Old World standards indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The result was that the colonization of the New World was catastrophic: native peoples were no match for European technology, ruthlessness, or their diseases which decimated the indigenous population. Spanish treatment of the indigenous populations caused a fierce debate, the Valladolid Controversy , over whether Indians possessed souls and if so, whether they were entitled to the basic rights of mankind. The influx of precious metals to the Spanish monarchy's coffers allowed it to finance costly religious wars in Europe which ultimately proved its economic undoing: the supply of metals was not infinite and the large inflow caused inflation and debt, and subsequently affected the rest of Europe. It was not long before the exclusivity of Iberian claims to the Americas was challenged by other up and coming European powers, primarily the Netherlands, France and England: the view taken by the rulers of these nations is epitomized by the quotation attributed to Francis I of France demanding to be shown the clause in Adam's will excluding his authority from the New World.

This challenge initially took the form of piratical attacks such as those by Francis Drake on Spanish treasure fleets or coastal settlements. Whereas Spanish colonialism was based on the religious conversion and exploitation of local populations via encomiendas many Spaniards emigrated to the Americas to elevate their social status, and were not interested in manual labour , Northern European colonialism was bolstered by those emigrating for religious reasons for example, the Mayflower voyage. The motive for emigration was not to become an aristocrat or to spread one's faith but to start a new society afresh, structured according to the colonists wishes. The most populous emigration of the 17th century was that of the English, who after a series of wars with the Dutch and French came to dominate the Thirteen Colonies on the eastern coast of the present day United States and other colonies such as Newfoundland and Rupert's Land in what is now Canada.

However, the English, French and Dutch were no more averse to making a profit than the Spanish and Portuguese, and whilst their areas of settlement in the Americas proved to be devoid of the precious metals found by the Spanish, trade in other commodities and products that could be sold at massive profit in Europe provided another reason for crossing the Atlantic, in particular furs from Canada, tobacco and cotton grown in Virginia and sugar in the islands of the Caribbean and Brazil. Due to the massive depletion of indigenous labour, plantation owners had to look elsewhere for manpower for these labour-intensive crops.

They turned to the centuries-old slave trade of west Africa and began transporting Africans across the Atlantic on a massive scale — historians estimate that the Atlantic slave trade brought between 10 and 12 million black African slaves to the New World. The islands of the Caribbean soon came to be populated by slaves of African descent, ruled over by a white minority of plantation owners interested in making a fortune and then returning to their home country to spend it. From its very outset, Western colonialism was operated as a joint public-private venture. Columbus' voyages to the Americas were partially funded by Italian investors, but whereas the Spanish state maintained a tight rein on trade with its colonies by law, the colonies could only trade with one designated port in the mother country and treasure was brought back in special convoys , the English, French and Dutch granted what were effectively trade monopolies to joint-stock companies such as the East India Companies and the Hudson's Bay Company.

Imperial Russia had no state sponsored expeditions or colonization in the Americas, but did charter the first Russian joint-stock commercial enterprise, the Russian America Company , which did sponsor those activities in its territories. Rivalry among reigning European powers saw the entry of the Dutch , English , French , Danish and others. The kingdoms of India were gradually taken over by the Europeans and indirectly controlled by puppet rulers. The English landed in India in Surat in By the 19th century, they had assumed direct and indirect control over most of India. During the five decades following , Britain, France, Spain and Portugal lost many of their possessions in the Americas.

After the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in , Britain had emerged as the world's dominant power, but found itself mired in debt and struggling to finance the Navy and Army necessary to maintain a global empire. The British Parliament 's attempt to raise taxes from North American colonists raised fears among the Americans that their rights as "Englishmen", and particularly their rights of self-government, were in danger.

From , a series of disputes with Parliament over taxation led to the American Revolution , first to informal committees of correspondence among the colonies, then to coordinated protest and resistance, with an important event in , the Boston Massacre. A standing army was formed by the United Colonies , and independence was declared by the Second Continental Congress on 4 July A new nation was born, the United States of America, and all royal officials were expelled.

On their own the Patriots captured a British Invasion army and France recognized the new nation, formed military alliance, declared war on Britain, and left the superpower without any major ally. Britain recognised the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by the British possessions to the North, Florida to the South, and the Mississippi River to the west. Haiti became the second independent nation that was a former European colony in the Western Hemisphere after the United States. Africans and people of African ancestry freed themselves from slavery and colonization by taking advantage of the conflict among whites over how to implement the reforms of the French Revolution in this slave society.

Although independence was declared in , it was not until that it was formally recognized by King Charles X of France. The gradual decline of Spain as an imperial power throughout the 17th century was hastened by the War of the Spanish Succession —14 , as a result of which it lost its European imperial possessions. The death knell for the Spanish Empire in the Americas was Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian peninsula in With the installation of his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne, the main tie between the metropole and its colonies in the Americas, the Spanish monarchy, had been cut, leading the colonists to question their continued subordination to a declining and distant country.

With an eye on the events of the American Revolution forty years earlier, revolutionary leaders began bloody wars of independence against Spain, whose armies were ultimately unable to maintain control. By , Spain had been ejected from the mainland of the Americas, leaving a collection of independent republics that stretched from Chile and Argentina in the south to Mexico in the north. Spain's colonial possessions were reduced to Cuba , Puerto Rico , the Philippines and a number of small islands in the Pacific, all of which she was to lose to the United States in the Spanish—American War or sell to Germany shortly thereafter.

Brazil was the only country in Latin America to gain its independence without bloodshed. For thirteen years, Portugal was ruled from Brazil the only instance of such a reversal of roles between colony and metropole until his return to Portugal in His son, Dom Pedro , was left in charge of Brazil and in he declared independence from Portugal and himself the Emperor of Brazil. Unlike Spain's former colonies which had abandoned the monarchy in favour of republicanism, Brazil therefore retained its links with its monarchy, the House of Braganza. Vasco da Gama 's maritime success to discover for Europeans a new sea route to India in paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce.

The next to arrive were the Dutch , the English —who set up a trading-post in the west-coast port of Surat in —and the French. The internal conflicts among Indian Kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands. Although these continental European powers were to control various regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century, they would eventually lose all their territories in India to the British, with the exception of the French outposts of Pondicherry and Chandernagore , the Dutch port in Travancore , and the Portuguese colonies of Goa , Daman , and Diu.

This was the first political foothold with territorial implications that the British had acquired in India. Clive was appointed by the company as its first Governor of Bengal in After the Battle of Buxar in , the company acquired the civil rights of administration in Bengal from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II ; it marked the beginning of its formal rule, which was to engulf eventually most of India and extinguish the Moghul rule and dynasty itself in less than a century. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal -like structure See Zamindar in Bengal.

By the s, the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule , taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. The first major movement against the British Company's high handed rule resulted in the Indian Rebellion of , also known as the "Indian Mutiny" or "Sepoy Mutiny" or the "First War of Independence". After a year of turmoil, and reinforcement of the East India Company's troops with British soldiers, the Company overcame the rebellion. The nominal leader of the uprising, the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar , was exiled to Burma, his children were beheaded and the Moghul line abolished.

In the aftermath all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown , which began to administer most of India as a colony; the company's lands were controlled directly and the rest through the rulers of what it called the Princely states. There were princely states when the Indian subcontinent gained independence from Britain in August During period of the British Raj , famines in India , often attributed to El Nino droughts and failed government policies, were some of the worst ever recorded, including the Great Famine of —78 , in which 6. Like the other European colonists, the French began their colonisation via commercial activities, starting with the establishment of a factory in Surat in The French started to settle down in India in , beginning with the purchase of land at Chandernagore from the Mughal Governor of Bengal, followed by the acquisition of Pondicherry from the Sultan of Bijapur the next year.

Both became the centres of the maritime commercial activities that the French conducted in India. Similar to the situation in Tahiti and Martinique, the French colonial administrative area was insular, but, in India, the French authority was isolated on the peripheries of a British-dominated territory. By the early eighteenth century, the French had become the chief European rivals of the British.

During the eighteenth century, it was highly possible for the Indian subcontinent to have succumbed to French control, but the defeat inflicted on them in the Seven Years War — permanently curtailed French ambitions. The Treaty of Paris of restored the original five to the French while making it clear that France could not expand its control beyond these areas. The beginning of the Portuguese occupation of India can be traced back to the arrival of Vasco da Gama near Calicut on 20 May Soon after this, other explorers, traders and missionaries followed. By , the Portuguese were the strongest naval power in the Indian Ocean and the Malabar Coast was dominated by them.

The policy and ideology of European colonial expansion between the s circa opening of Suez Canal and Second Industrial Revolution and the outbreak of World War I in are often characterised as the " New Imperialism. During this period, Europe's powers added nearly 8,, square miles 23,, km 2 to their overseas colonial possessions. As it was mostly unoccupied by the Western powers as late as the s, Africa became the primary target of the "new" imperialist expansion known as the Scramble for Africa , although conquest took place also in other areas — notably south-east Asia and the East Asian seaboard, where Japan joined the European powers' scramble for territory.

The Berlin Conference — mediated the imperial competition among Britain, France and Germany, defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of colonial claims and codifying the imposition of direct rule , accomplished usually through armed force. In Germany, rising pan-Germanism was coupled to imperialism in the Alldeutsche Verband "Pangermanic League" , which argued that Britain's world power position gave the British unfair advantages on international markets, thus limiting Germany's economic growth and threatening its security. Asking whether colonies paid, economic historian Grover Clark argues an emphatic "No! Apart from the British Empire, they were not favored destinations for the immigration of surplus populations.

Africa was the target of the third wave of European colonialism, after that of the Americas and Asia. As a champion of Realpolitik , Bismarck disliked colonies and thought they were a waste of time, but his hand was forced by pressure from both the elites and the general population which considered the colonization a necessity for German prestige. In the same manner, countries such as America and Britain exercise certain powers over other countries. Nowadays, you do not have to conquer the country to have power over them. Suppression is the basic idea in colonialism. A country tries to conquer and rule over other regions in the case of colonialism. In fact, colonialism is supposed to have its origin in Europe when the Europeans decided to form colonies in search of better trade relationships.

People tend to move in large numbers in the case of colonialism. They also tend to form groups and become settlers. Think about all the former British colonies in the world. When Britain invaded these countries, they put down their roots there as some families settled down in these countries. Then, they used the wealth of these countries and also built a trade structure using these countries. Settling in this new region is a part of colonialism.

It is more concerned with political power. This explains the fact that during the devastating famines of and in which 12 to 30 million Indians starved to death, mortality rates were highest in areas serviced by British rail lines. Gilley argues current poverty and instability within the Democratic Republic of the Congo proves the Congolese were better off under Belgian rule. The evidence says otherwise. Since independence in , life expectancy in the Congo has climbed steadily, from around 41 years on the eve of independence to 59 in This figure remains low compared to most other countries in the world.

Nonetheless, it is high compared to what it was under Belgian rule. Under colonial rule, the Congolese population declined by estimates ranging from three million to 13 million between and due to widespread disease, a coercive labour regime and endemic brutality. Gilley argues the benefits of colonialism can be observed by comparing former colonies to countries with no significant colonial history. Yet his examples of the latter erroneously include Haiti a French colony from to , Libya a direct colony of the Ottoman Empire from and of Italy from , and Guatemala occupied by Spain from to By contrast, he neglects to mention Japan, a country that legitimately was never colonized and now boasts the third largest GDP on the planet , as well as Turkey, which up until recently was widely viewed as the most successful secular country in the Muslim world.

In short, the facts are in, but they do not paint the picture that Gilley and other imperial apologists would like to claim. Colonialism left deep scars on the Global South and for those genuinely interested in the welfare of non-Western countries, the first step is acknowledging this. Transitioning to new energy systems: What impact will it have on society and on our lives?

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