🔥🔥🔥 Media Production Definition

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Media Production Definition

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What is Media Production?

In the s, connections between computing and radical art began to grow stronger. It was not until the s that Alan Kay and his co-workers at Xerox PARC began to give the computability of a personal computer to the individual, rather than have a big organization be in charge of this. Although causally unrelated, conceptually it makes sense that the Cold War and the design of the Web took place at exactly the same time. Writers and philosophers such as Marshall McLuhan were instrumental in the development of media theory during this period. His now famous declaration in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man that " the medium is the message " drew attention to the too often ignored influence media and technology themselves, rather than their "content," have on humans' experience of the world and on society broadly.

Until the s media relied primarily upon print and analog broadcast models, such as those of television and radio. The last twenty-five years have seen the rapid transformation into media which are predicated upon the use of digital technologies, such as the Internet and video games. However, these examples are only a small representation of new media. The use of digital computers has transformed the remaining 'old' media, as suggested by the advent of digital television and online publications.

Even traditional media forms such as the printing press have been transformed through the application of technologies such as image manipulation software like Adobe Photoshop and desktop publishing tools. Andrew L. Shapiro argues that the "emergence of new, digital technologies signals a potentially radical shift of who is in control of information, experience and resources" Shapiro cited in Croteau and Hoynes Russell Neuman suggests that whilst the "new media" have technical capabilities to pull in one direction, economic and social forces pull back in the opposite direction.

According to Neuman, "We are witnessing the evolution of a universal interconnected network of audio, video, and electronic text communications that will blur the distinction between interpersonal and mass communication and between public and private communication" Neuman cited in Croteau and Hoynes Neuman argues that new media will:. Consequently, it has been the contention of scholars such as Douglas Kellner and James Bohman that new media, and particularly the Internet, provide the potential for a democratic postmodern public sphere, in which citizens can participate in well informed, non-hierarchical debate pertaining to their social structures. Contradicting these positive appraisals of the potential social impacts of new media are scholars such as Edward S.

Herman and Robert McChesney who have suggested that the transition to new media has seen a handful of powerful transnational telecommunications corporations who achieve a level of global influence which was hitherto unimaginable. Scholars, such as Lister et al. Based on the argument that people have a limited amount of time to spend on the consumption of different media, Displacement theory argue that the viewership or readership of one particular outlet leads to the reduction in the amount of time spent by the individual on another.

The introduction of new media, such as the internet, therefore reduces the amount of time individuals would spend on existing "old" media, which could ultimately lead to the end of such traditional media. Although there are several ways that new media may be described, Lev Manovich, in an introduction to The New Media Reader , defines new media by using eight propositions: [1]. The rise of new media has increased communication between people all over the world and the Internet. It has allowed people to express themselves through blogs, websites, videos, pictures, and other user-generated media.

Terry Flew stated that as new technologies develop the world becomes more globalized. Globalization is more than the development of activities throughout the world, globalization allows the world to be connected no matter the distance from user to user Carely in Flew [4] and Cairncross expresses this great development as the "death of distance". According to Croteau and Hoynes [5] new media has established the importance of making friendships through digital social places more prominent than in physical places. Globalization is generally stated as "more than expansion of activities beyond the boundaries of particular nation states". New media "radically break the connection between physical place and social place, making physical location much less significant for our social relationships" Croteau and Hoynes However, the changes in the new media environment create a series of tensions in the concept of "public sphere".

This trend of the globalized public sphere is not only as a geographical expansion form a nation to worldwide, but also changes the relationship between the public, the media and state Volkmer, For Sherry Turkle "making the computer into a second self, finding a soul in the machine, can substitute for human relationships" Holmes New media has the ability to connect like-minded others worldwide. While this perspective suggests that the technology drives — and therefore is a determining factor — in the process of globalization, arguments involving technological determinism are generally frowned upon by mainstream media studies.

While commentators such as Manuel Castells [13] espouse a "soft determinism" [12] whereby they contend that "Technology does not determine society. Nor does society script the course of technological change, since many factors, including individual inventiveness and entrpreneurialism, intervene in the process of scientific discovery, technical innovation and social applications, so the final outcome depends on a complex pattern of interaction. Indeed the dilemma of technological determinism is probably a false problem, since technology is society and society cannot be understood without its technological tools. Manovich [16] and Castells [13] have argued that whereas mass media "corresponded to the logic of industrial mass society, which values conformity over individuality," Manovich new media follows the logic of the postindustrial or globalized society whereby "every citizen can construct her own custom lifestyle and select her ideology from a large number of choices.

Rather than pushing the same objects to a mass audience, marketing now tries to target each individual separately. The evolution of virtual communities highlighted many aspects of the real world. Tom Boellstorff's studies of Second Life discuss a term known as "griefing. In the real world, these same types of actions are carried out. Virtual communities are a clear demonstration of new media through means of new technological developments.

Anthropologist Daniel Miller and sociologist Don Slater discussed online Trinidad culture on online networks through the use of ethnographic studies. The study argues that internet culture does exist and this version of new media cannot eliminate people's relations to their geographic area or national identity. Social movement media has a rich and storied history see Agitprop that has changed at a rapid rate since new media became widely used. The WTO Ministerial Conference of protest activity was another landmark in the use of new media as a tool for social change. The WTO protests used media to organize the original action, communicate with and educate participants, and was used as an alternative media source.

Some are also skeptical of the role of new media in social movements. Many scholars point out unequal access to new media as a hindrance to broad-based movements, sometimes even oppressing some within a movement. New media has also found a use with less radical social movements such as the Free Hugs Campaign. Using websites, blogs, and online videos to demonstrate the effectiveness of the movement itself. Along with this example the use of high volume blogs has allowed numerous views and practices to be more widespread and gain more public attention. Another example is the ongoing Free Tibet Campaign , which has been seen on numerous websites as well as having a slight tie-in with the band Gorillaz in their Gorillaz Bitez clip featuring the lead singer 2D sitting with protesters at a Free Tibet protest.

Another social change seen coming from New Media is trends in fashion and the emergence of subcultures such as textspeak , Cyberpunk , and various others. Following trends in fashion and textspeak, New Media also makes way for "trendy" social change. The Ice Bucket Challenge is a recent example of this. All in the name of raising money for ALS the lethal neurodegenerative disorder also known as Lou Gehrig's disease , participants are nominated by friends via social media such as Facebook and Twitter to dump a bucket of ice water on themselves, or donate to the ALS Foundation. This became a huge trend through Facebook's tagging tool, allowing nominees to be tagged in the post. The videos appeared on more people's feeds, and the trend spread fast.

This trend raised over million dollars for the cause and increased donations by 3, percent. A meme, often seen on the internet, is an idea that has been replicated and passed along. Ryan Milner compared this concept to a possible tool for social change. The combination of pictures and texts represent pop polyvocality "the people's version".

A meme can make more serious conversations less tense while still displaying the situation at sake Milner, The music industry was affected by the advancement of new media. Throughout years of technology growth, the music industry faced major changes such as the distribution of music from shellac to vinyl, vinyl to 8-tracks, and many more changes over the decades.

Beginning in the early s audio was released on a brittle material called " shellac. Play which was only seven inches around and had a longer playing time in comparison to the original LP Kendall, The desire for portable music still persisted in this era which projected the launch of the compact cassette. The Cassette was released in and flourished after post-war where Cassette tapes were being converted into cars for entertainment when traveling. Not long after the development of the cassette did the music industry begin to see forms of piracy. Cassette tapes allowed people to make their own tapes without paying for rights to the music Kendall, This effect caused a major loss in the music industry but it also led to the evolution of mixtapes.

As music technologies continued to develop from 8-tracks , floppy discs , CD's , to today's MP3 , so did new media platforms as well. The discovery of MP3's in the s has since changed the world we live in today. At first, MP3 tracks threatened the industry with massive piracy file-to-file sharing networks such as Napster , until laws were established to prevent this Kendall, However, consumption of music is higher than ever before due to streaming platforms like Apple Music, Spotify, Pandora, and many more! New media has become of interest to the global espionage community as it is easily accessible electronically in database format and can therefore be quickly retrieved and reverse engineered by national governments.

Particularly of interest to the espionage community are Facebook and Twitter , two sites where individuals freely divulge personal information that can then be sifted through and archived for the automatic creation of dossiers on both people of interest and the average citizen. New media also serves as an important tool for both institutions and nations to promote their interests and values The contents of such promotion may vary according to different purposes.

Some communities consider it an approach of "peaceful evolution" that may erode their own nation's system of values and eventually compromise national security. Interactivity has become a term for a number of new media use options evolving from the rapid dissemination of Internet access points, the digitalization of media, and media convergence. In , Rice defined new media as communication technologies that enable or facilitate user-to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information.

Any individual with the appropriate technology can now produce his or her online media and include images, text, and sound about whatever he or she chooses. In "What is new media? He saw interpersonal media as "one to one", mass media as "one to many", and finally new media as individuation media or "many to many". Interactivity is present in some programming work, such as video games. It's also viable in the operation of traditional media. In the mid s, filmmakers started using inexpensive digital cameras to create films. It was also the time when moving image technology had developed, which was able to be viewed on computer desktops in full motion. This development of new media technology was a new method for artists to share their work and interact with the big world.

Many people use the term editing to describe all their post-production work, especially in non-professional situations. Whether or not you choose to be picky about terminology is up to you. In this tutorial we are reasonably liberal with our terminology and we use the word editing to mean any of the following:. There are many reasons to edit a video and your editing approach will depend on the desired outcome. Before you begin you must clearly define your editing goals, which could include any of the following:. This is the simplest and most common task in editing. However, as business continued to grow, Facebook built its own office space and data centers.

Each of these requires significant real estate and capital investments. The retail coffee chain needs land prime real estate in big cities for its coffee chain , capital large machinery to produce and dispense coffee , and labor employees at its retail outposts for service. While large companies make for excellent examples, a majority of companies within the United States are small businesses started by entrepreneurs. Because entrepreneurs are vital for economic growth, countries are creating the necessary framework and policies to make it easier for them to start companies.

The definition of factors of production in economic systems presumes that ownership lies with households, who lend or lease them to entrepreneurs and organizations. But that is a theoretical construct and rarely the case in practice. Except for labor, ownership for factors of production varies based on industry and economic system. For example, a firm operating in the real estate industry typically owns significant parcels of land, while retail corporations and shops lease land for extended periods of time.

Capital also follows a similar model in that it can be owned or leased from another party. Under no circumstances, however, is labor owned by firms. Ownership of the factors of production also differs based on the economic system. For example, private enterprises and individuals own most of the factors of production in capitalism. However, collective good is the predominating principle in socialism. As such, factors of production, such as land and capital, are owned and regulated by the community as a whole under socialism. While not directly listed as a factor, technology plays an important role in influencing production.

In this context, technology has a fairly broad definition and can be used to refer to software, hardware, or a combination of both used to streamline organizational or manufacturing processes. Increasingly, technology is responsible for the difference in efficiency among firms. To that end, technology—like money—is a facilitator of the factors of production. The introduction of technology into a labor or capital process makes it more efficient. For example, the use of robots in manufacturing has the potential to improve productivity and output. Similarly, the use of kiosks in self-serve restaurants can help firms cut back on their labor costs.

Economists consider TFP to be the main factor driving economic growth for a country. The factors of production are an important economic concept outlining the elements needed to produce a good or service for sale. They are commonly broken down into four elements: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. However, commentators sometimes refer to labor and capital as the two primary factors of production.

Depending on the specific circumstances, one or more factors of production might be more important than the others. Land refers to physical land, such as the acres used for a farm or the city block on which a building is constructed. Labor refers to all wage-earning activities, such as the work of professionals, retail workers, and so on. Entrepreneurship refers to the initiatives taken by entrepreneurs, who typically begin as the first workers in their firms and then gradually employ other factors of production to grow their businesses.

Finally, capital refers to the cash, equipment, and other assets needed to start or grow a business. Depending on the context, some factors of production might be more important than others. For example, a software company that relies primarily on the labor of skilled software engineers might see labor as its most valuable factor of production. Meanwhile, a company that makes its money from building and renting out office space might see land and capital as its most valuable factors.

As the demands of a business change over time, the relative importance of the factors of production will also change accordingly. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Accessed Sept. International Federation of Robotics. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Part Of. Terms A-B.

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