⌚ Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development

Friday, September 03, 2021 10:56:33 PM

Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development



Specific indicators for measuring progress can range from economic data, technical innovations, change in the political or legal system, and questions Tulku Dakpa Gyaltsen on Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development life chances, Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development as life expectancy and risk of disease and disability. In principle, these Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development can be infinite and Barney Krogers Grocery Stores change Character Analysis Of Speak In William Andersons Novel Speak time. Technology makes it possible for a more innovative Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development and broad social change. Marxism further states that capitalism, in its quest for higher profits and new markets, will inevitably sow the seeds Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development its own destruction. Cite this Article Format. In these terms, development means not just combating or ameliorating poverty but restoring or enhancing basic human capabilities and freedoms. Many would argue that the ways in which gender Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development have been integrated into development thinking and practice indicate a high degree of Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development Shawshank Film Analysis politicized feminist objectives rather Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development their success in transforming the development agenda. Encyclopedia Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development the Romantic Helena Swanwicks Book Report,

Theories of Development Modernisation Theory

It cannot be replicated in other places because of this, and it should not be replicated in this way, these critics argue. Others, such as critical theorists including members of the Frankfurt School , have pointed out that Western modernization is premised on the extreme exploitation of workers within the capitalist system, and that the toll of modernization on social relations has been great, leading to widespread social alienation, a loss of community, and unhappiness. Still others critique modernization theory for failing to account for the unsustainable nature of the project, in an environmental sense, and point out that pre-modern, traditional, and Indigenous cultures typically had much more environmentally conscious and symbiotic relationships between people and the planet.

Share Flipboard Email. By Ashley Crossman. Updated September 29, Cite this Article Format. Crossman, Ashley. A Brief Guide to Modernization Theory. What Is Socialism? Communication industries have enabled capitalism to spread throughout the world. Telephony, television broadcasts, news services and online service providers have played a crucial part in globalization. Former U. S president Lyndon B. Johnson was a supporter of the modernization theory and believed that television had potential to provide educational tools in development.

With the many apparent positive attributes to globalization there are also negative consequences. The dominant, neoliberal model of globalization often increases disparities between a society's rich and its poor. Globalists are globalization modernization theorists and argue that globalization is positive for everyone, as its benefits must eventually extend to all members of society, including vulnerable groups such as women and children. The relationship between modernization and democracy is one of the most researched studies in comparative politics.

There is academic debate over the drivers of democracy because there are theories that support economic growth as both a cause and effect of the institution of democracy. Larry Diamond and Juan Linz , who worked with Lipset in the book, Democracy in Developing Countries: Latin America , argue that economic performance affects the development of democracy in at least three ways. First, they argue that economic growth is more important for democracy than given levels of socioeconomic development. Second, socioeconomic development generates social changes that can potentially facilitate democratization. Third, socioeconomic development promotes other changes, like organization of the middle class, which is conducive to democracy.

As Seymour Martin Lipset put it, "All the various aspects of economic development—industrialization, urbanization, wealth and education—are so closely interrelated as to form one major factor which has the political correlate of democracy". Rostow , Politics and the Stages of Growth ; A. In the s, some critics argued that the link between modernization and democracy was based too much on the example of European history and neglected the Third World.

One historical problem with that argument has always been Germany whose economic modernization in the 19th century came long before the democratization after Berman , however, concludes that a process of democratization was underway in Imperial Germany, for "during these years Germans developed many of the habits and mores that are now thought by political scientists to augur healthy political development". Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel contend that the realization of democracy is not based solely on an expressed desire for that form of government, but democracies are born as a result of the admixture of certain social and cultural factors.

They argue the ideal social and cultural conditions for the foundation of a democracy are born of significant modernization and economic development that result in mass political participation. Peerenboom explores the relationships among democracy, the rule of law and their relationship to wealth by pointing to examples of Asian countries, such as Taiwan and South Korea, which have successfully democratized only after economic growth reached relatively high levels and to examples of countries such as the Philippines , Bangladesh , Cambodia , Thailand , Indonesia and India , which sought to democratize at lower levels of wealth but have not done as well.

Adam Przeworski and others have challenged Lipset's argument. They say political regimes do not transition to democracy as per capita incomes rise. Rather, democratic transitions occur randomly, but once there, countries with higher levels of gross domestic product per capita remain democratic. Epstein et al. Contrary to Przeworski, this study finds that the modernization hypothesis stands up well. Partial democracies emerge as among the most important and least understood regime types.

A meta-analysis by Gerardo L. Munck of research on Lipset's argument shows that a majority of studies do not support the thesis that higher levels of economic development leads to more democracy. Highly contentious is the idea that modernization implies more human rights, with China in the 21st century being a major test case. New technology is a major source of social change. Social change refers to any significant alteration over time in behaviour patterns and cultural values and norms.

Since modernization entails the social transformation from agrarian societies to industrial ones, it is important to look at the technological viewpoint; however, new technologies do not change societies by itself. Rather, it is the response to technology that causes change. Frequently, technology is recognized but not put to use for a very long time such as the ability to extract metal from rock [ citation needed ] Although that initially went unused, it later had profound implications for the developmental course of societies. Technology makes it possible for a more innovative society and broad social change.

That dramatic change through the centuries that has evolved socially, industrially, and economically, can be summed up by the term modernization. Cell phones, for example, have changed the lives of millions throughout the world. That is especially true in Africa and other parts of the Middle East , where there is a low-cost communication infrastructure. With cell phone technology, widely dispersed populations are connected, which facilitates business-to-business communication and provides internet access to remoter areas, with a consequential rise in literacy. Development, like modernization, has become the orienting principle of modern times. Countries that are seen as modern are also seen as developed, which means that they are generally more respected by institutions such as the United Nations and even as possible trade partners for other countries.

The extent to which a country has modernized or developed dictates its power and importance on the international level. Modernization of the health sector of developing nations recognizes that transitioning from ' traditional ' to 'modern' is not merely the advancement in technology and the introduction of Western practices; implementing modern healthcare requires the reorganization of political agenda and, in turn, an increase in funding by feeders and resources towards public health. Additionally, a strong advocate of the DE-emphasis of medical institutions was Halfdan T. Related ideas have been proposed at international conferences such as Alma-Ats and the "Health and Population in Development" conference, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation in Italy in , and selective primary healthcare and GOBI were discussed although they have both been strongly criticized by supporters of comprehensive healthcare.

Modernization theorists often saw traditions as obstacles to economic growth. According to Seymour Martin Lipset, economic conditions are heavily determined by the cultural, social values present in that given society. Critics insist that traditional societies were often destroyed without ever gaining the promised advantages if, among other things, the economic gap between advanced societies and such societies actually increased. The net effect of modernization for some societies was therefore the replacement of traditional poverty by a more modern form of misery , according to these critics. President John F.

Kennedy —63 relied on economists W. Rostow on his staff and outsider John Kenneth Galbraith for ideas on how to promote rapid economic development in the " Third World ", as it was called at the time. They promoted modernization models in order to reorient American aid to Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the Rostow version in his The Stages of Economic Growth progress must pass through five stages, and for underdeveloped world the critical stages were the second one, the transition, the third stage, the takeoff into self-sustaining growth.

Rostow argued that American intervention could propel a country from the second to the third stage he expected that once it reached maturity, it would have a large energized middle class that would establish democracy and civil liberties and institutionalize human rights. The result was a comprehensive theory that could be used to challenge Marxist ideologies, and thereby repel communist advances. Kennedy proclaimed the s the "Development Decade" and substantially increased the budget for foreign assistance.

Modernization theory supplied the design, rationale, and justification for these programs. The goals proved much too ambitious, and the economists in a few years abandoned the European-based modernization model as inappropriate to the cultures they were trying to impact. Time was generally regarded as the enemy of humanity which depreciates the value of the world. He credits the Epicureans with having had a potential for leading to the foundation of a theory of progress through their materialistic acceptance of the atomism of Democritus as the explanation for a world without an intervening deity. For them, the earliest condition of men resembled that of the beasts, and from this primitive and miserable condition they laboriously reached the existing state of civilisation, not by external guidance or as a consequence of some initial design, but simply by the exercise of human intelligence throughout a long period.

Robert Nisbet and Gertrude Himmelfarb have attributed a notion of progress to other Greeks. Xenophanes said "The gods did not reveal to men all things in the beginning, but men through their own search find in the course of time that which is better. During the Medieval period, science was to a large extent based on Scholastic a method of thinking and learning from the Middle Ages interpretations of Aristotle's work. The Renaissance of the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries changed the mindset in Europe towards an empirical view, based on a pantheistic interpretation of Plato. This induced a revolution in curiosity about nature in general and scientific advance, which opened the gates for technical and economic advance.

Furthermore, the individual potential was seen as a never-ending quest for being God-like, paving the way for a view of Man based on unlimited perfection and progress. In the Enlightenment , French historian and philosopher Voltaire — was a major proponent of progress. His subsequent notion of the historical idea of progress saw science and reason as the driving forces behind societal advancement. Immanuel Kant — argued that progress is neither automatic nor continuous and does not measure knowledge or wealth, but is a painful and largely inadvertent passage from barbarism through civilization toward enlightened culture and the abolition of war.

Kant called for education, with the education of humankind seen as a slow process whereby world history propels mankind toward peace through war, international commerce, and enlightened self-interest. Scottish theorist Adam Ferguson — defined human progress as the working out of a divine plan, though he rejected predestination. The difficulties and dangers of life provided the necessary stimuli for human development, while the uniquely human ability to evaluate led to ambition and the conscious striving for excellence. But he never adequately analyzed the competitive and aggressive consequences stemming from his emphasis on ambition even though he envisioned man's lot as a perpetual striving with no earthly culmination.

Man found his happiness only in effort. Some scholars consider the idea of progress that was affirmed with the Enlightenment, as a secularization of ideas from early Christianity , and a reworking of ideas from ancient Greece. In the 19th century, Romantic critics charged that progress did not automatically better the human condition, and in some ways could make it worse. He said, "Had population and food increased in the same ratio, it is probable that man might never have emerged from the savage state". He argued that man's capacity for improvement has been demonstrated by the growth of his intellect, a form of progress which offsets the distresses engendered by the law of population. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche — criticized the idea of progress as the 'weakling's doctrines of optimism,' and advocated undermining concepts such as faith in progress, to allow the strong individual to stand above the plebeian masses.

An important part of his thinking consists of the attempt to use the classical model of 'eternal recurrence of the same' to dislodge the idea of progress. Iggers argues there was general agreement in the late 19th century that the steady accumulation of knowledge and the progressive replacement of conjectural, that is, theological or metaphysical, notions by scientific ones was what created progress. Most scholars concluded this growth of scientific knowledge and methods led to the growth of industry and the transformation of warlike societies into industrial and pacific ones.

They agreed as well that there had been a systematic decline of coercion in government, and an increasing role of liberty and of rule by consent. There was more emphasis on impersonal social and historical forces; progress was increasingly seen as the result of an inner logic of society. Marx developed a theory of historical materialism. He describes the midth-century condition in The Communist Manifesto as follows:. The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Conservation of the old modes of production in unaltered form, was, on the contrary, the first condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes.

Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty, and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air, all which is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind.

Furthermore, Marx described the process of social progress, which in his opinion is based on the interaction between the productive forces and the relations of production:. No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed, and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions for their existence have matured within the framework of the old society. Capitalism is thought by Marx as a process of continual change, in which the growth of markets dissolve all fixities in human life, and Marx admits that capitalism is progressive and non- reactionary.

Marxism further states that capitalism, in its quest for higher profits and new markets, will inevitably sow the seeds of its own destruction. Marxists believe that, in the future, capitalism will be replaced by socialism and eventually communism. Many advocates of capitalism such as Schumpeter agreed with Marx's analysis of capitalism as a process of continual change through creative destruction , but, unlike Marx, believed and hoped that capitalism could essentially go on forever. Thus, by the beginning of the 20th century, two opposing schools of thought—Marxism and liberalism—believed in the possibility and the desirability of continual change and improvement.

Marxists strongly opposed capitalism and the liberals strongly supported it, but the one concept they could both agree on was progress, which affirms the power of human beings to make, improve and reshape their society, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation. Modernity denotes cultures that embrace that concept of progress. This is not the same as modernism , which was the artistic and philosophical response to modernity, some of which embraced technology while rejecting individualism, but more of which rejected modernity entirely. The history of the idea of Progress has been treated briefly and partially by various French writers; e. Comte, Cours de philosophie positive , vi.

More recently M. Jules Delvaille has attempted to trace its history fully, down to the end of the eighteenth century. His Histoire de l'idee de progres is planned on a large scale; he is erudite and has read extensively. But his treatment is lacking in the power of discrimination. He strikes one as anxious to bring within his net, as theoriciens du progres , as many distinguished thinkers as possible; and so, along with a great deal that is useful and relevant, we also find in his book much that is irrelevant.

He has not clearly seen that the distinctive idea of Progress was not conceived in antiquity or in the Middle Ages, or even in the Renaissance period; and when he comes to modern times he fails to bring out clearly the decisive steps of its growth. And he does not seem to realize that a man might be "progressive" without believing in, or even thinking about, the doctrine of Progress. Leonardo da Vinci and Berkeley are examples. In my Ancient Greek Historians I dwelt on the modern origin of the idea p.

Recently Mr. Murray, in a learned appendix to his Erasmus and Luther , has developed the thesis that Progress was not grasped in antiquity though he makes an exception of Seneca ,—a welcome confirmation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the general idea of progress. For other uses, see Progress disambiguation. Movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise desired state. Civil liberties Cultural liberalism Economic development Broad measures Economic growth Empirical evidence Direct democracy Freedom of movement Human enhancement Idea of Progress Industrialisation Liberation theology Linear history Modernity Philosophical progress Philosophy of progress Progressive education in Latin America Reform movement Social justice Social justice warrior Social organization Social progress List of countries Scientific progress Social change Sustainable design Ecological engineering Self-determination Scientific management Scientific method Sustainable development Technological change Techno-progressivism Welfare Women's suffrage.

By region. Democratic socialism Left-libertarianism Left-wing populism Liberalism Modern liberalism Radical liberalism Social liberalism Social democracy Technocracy. See also: History of science , Technological change , and Invention. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Main article: Modernization. See also: Progress trap. Main article: Classical antiquity. Main article: Renaissance. Main article: Age of Enlightenment. Philosophy portal Economics portal. Accelerating change Constitutional economics Global social change research project Happiness economics Leisure satisfaction Manifest Destiny Money-rich, time-poor Moral progress Progressive utilization theory Psychometrics Social development Social change Social justice Social order Social regress Sociocultural evolution Technological progress Techno-progressivism.

Progress definition. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Our World in Data. Retrieved European Review. ISSN University of Chicago Press. ISBN When [history of science] began, during the eighteenth century, it was practiced by scientists or "natural philosophers" with an interest in validating and defending their enterprise. They wrote histories in which History of the Idea of Progress. New York: Basic Books Ch. World Economic Forum. Retrieved 18 April Edward Elgar Publishing, p. Seybolt, Progress: Fact or Illusion? Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, p. Telling the Truth about History. Norton, p.

Bury 's study: The Idea of Progress, published in and available in full on the web : The history of the idea of Progress has been treated briefly and partially by various French writers; e. Economic Development: The History of an Idea. Palgrave Macmillan. Huesemann Cambridge University Press, pp 28ff. Archived from the original on Sorokin, paper, quoted in Fay Thompson The Poverty of Historicism.

Factors Eucurid University Aca-401 Coursepack Analysis or causes of democratization: Argumentative Essay On Christmas. Power may have Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development exercised through indirect means, but it was not in any Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development than a Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development sense limited in its potential to stamp out resistance. Milford, There is less regulation Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development levels of violence in civil wars. S president Lyndon B. It is argued that globalization is related media production definition the spreading of modernization across borders. He hypothesizes that caste Catcher In The Rye Happiness Now Analysis used to organize Modernization Theory: The Theory Of Technological Development diverse social groups for the benefit of British control.