⌚ Jessica Jones Case Study Essay
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Case Study Presentation: Confessional Art and Photography
Hence the need for a visualization that can bring these connected, but globally dispersed processes into a single map. If you read our map from left to right, the story begins and ends with the Earth, and the geological processes of deep time. But read from top to bottom, we see the story as it begins and ends with a human. The top is the human agent, querying the Echo, and supplying Amazon with the valuable training data of verbal questions and responses that they can use to further refine their voice-enabled AI systems.
At the bottom of the map is another kind of human resource: the history of human knowledge and capacity, which is also used to train and optimize artificial intelligence systems. This is a key difference between artificial intelligence systems and other forms of consumer technology: they rely on the ingestion, analysis and optimization of vast amounts of human generated images, texts and videos. When a human engages with an Echo, or another voice-enabled AI device, they are acting as much more than just an end-product consumer. It is difficult to place the human user of an AI system into a single category: rather, they deserve to be considered as a hybrid case. Just as the Greek chimera was a mythological animal that was part lion, goat, snake and monster, the Echo user is simultaneously a consumer, a resource, a worker, and a product.
This multiple identity recurs for human users in many technological systems. In the specific case of the Amazon Echo, the user has purchased a consumer device for which they receive a set of convenient affordances. But they are also a resource, as their voice commands are collected, analyzed and retained for the purposes of building an ever-larger corpus of human voices and instructions. It presents a sleek surface with no ability to open it, repair it or change how it functions. The object itself is a very simple extrusion of plastic representing a collection of sensors — its real power and complexity lies somewhere else, far out of sight.
In his lifetime he published forty major works across the fields of medicine, geology, comparative religion and music. He invented the first magnetic clock, many early automatons, and the megaphone. As Kircher wrote:. In this manner it will be perfect, and capable to emit clearly any kind of sound: in fact the statue will be able to speak continuously, uttering in either a human or animal voice: it will laugh or sneer; it will seem to really cry or moan; sometimes with great astonishment it will strongly blow. If the opening of the spiral shaped tube is located in correspondence to an open public space, all human words pronounced, focused in the conduit, would be replayed through the mouth of the statue.
The listening system could eavesdrop on everyday conversations in the piazza, and relay them to the 17th century Italian oligarchs. People inside the homes of aristocrats would have no idea how a magical statue was speaking and conveying all manner of information. The aim was to obscure how the system worked: an elegant statue was all they could see. Listening systems, even at this early stage, were about power, class, and secrecy. And so the question remains, what are the full resource implications of building such systems? This brings us to the materiality of the infrastructure that lies beneath. Statua citofonica by Athanasius Kircher Reflecting upon media and technology as geological processes enables us to consider the profound depletion of non-renewable resources required to drive the technologies of the present moment.
Each object in the extended network of an AI system, from network routers to batteries to microphones, is built using elements that required billions of years to be produced. For example, the Consumer Technology Association notes that the average smartphone lifespan is 4. From a slow process of elemental development, these elements and materials go through an extraordinarily rapid period of excavation, smelting, mixing, and logistical transport — crossing thousands of kilometers in their transformation.
Geological processes mark both the beginning and the end of this period, from the mining of ore, to the deposition of material in an electronic waste dump. However, all the transformations and movements we depict are only the barest anatomical outline: beneath these connections lie many more layers of fractal supply chains, and exploitation of human and natural resources, concentrations of corporate and geopolitical power, and continual energy consumption.
Drawing out the connections between resources, labor and data extraction brings us inevitably back to traditional frameworks of exploitation. But how is value being generated through these systems? A useful conceptual tool can be found in the work of Christian Fuchs and other authors examining and defining digital labor. The notion of digital labor, which was initially linked with different forms of non-material labor, precedes the life of devices and complex systems such as artificial intelligence.
Digital labor — the work of building and maintaining the stack of digital systems — is far from ephemeral or virtual, but is deeply embodied in different activities. These processes create new accumulations of wealth and power, which are concentrated in a very thin social layer. This triangle of value extraction and production represents one of the basic elements of our map, from birth in a geological process, through life as a consumer AI product, and ultimately to death in an electronics dump.
They form a cyclic flow in which the product of work is transformed into a resource, which is transformed into a product, which is transformed into a resource and so on. Each triangle represents one phase in the production process. Although this appears on the map as a linear path of transformation, a different visual metaphor better represents the complexity of current extractivism: the fractal structure known as the Sierpinski triangle. A linear display does not enable us to show that each next step of production and exploitation contains previous phases. If we look at the production and exploitation system through a fractal visual structure, the smallest triangle would represent natural resources and means of labor, i. The next larger triangle encompasses the processing of metals, and the next would represent the process of manufacturing components and so on.
The ultimate triangle in our map, the production of the Amazon Echo unit itself, includes all of these levels of exploitation — from the bottom to the very top of Amazon Inc, a role inhabited by Jeff Bezos as CEO of Amazon. Like a pharaoh of ancient Egypt, he stands at the top of the largest pyramid of AI value extraction. Sierpinski triangle or Sierpinski fractal. If we look at the scale of average income for each activity in the production process of one device, which is shown on the left side of our map, we see the dramatic difference in income earned. According to research by Amnesty International, during the excavation of cobalt which is also used for lithium batteries of 16 multinational brands, workers are paid the equivalent of one US dollar per day for working in conditions hazardous to life and health, and were often subjected to violence, extortion and intimidation.
For an anthropological description of these mining processes, see: Jeffrey W. Many of the triangles shown on this map hide different stories of labor exploitation and inhumane working conditions. The ecological price of transformation of elements and income disparities is just one of the possible ways of representing a deep systemic inequality. Consumers are usually only able to see commodities in the here and now of time and space, and rarely have any opportunities to gaze backwards through the chains of production in order to gain knowledge about the sites of production, transformation, and distribution.
One illustration of the difficulty of investigating and tracking the contemporary production chain process is that it took Intel more than four years to understand its supply line well enough to ensure that no tantalum from the Congo was in its microprocessor products. As a semiconductor chip manufacturer, Intel supplies Apple with processors. In order to do so, Intel has its own multi-tiered supply chain of more than 19, suppliers in over countries providing direct materials for their production processes, tools and machines for their factories, and logistics and packaging services.
Dutch-based technology company Philips has also claimed that it was working to make its supply chain 'conflict-free'. Philips, for example, has tens of thousands of different suppliers, each of which provides different components for their manufacturing processes. Traders are the middlemen who do more than buy and sell rare metals: they help to regulate information and are the hidden link that helps in navigating the network between metals plants and the components in our laptops. In addition, many of the minerals are smelted together with recycled metals, by which point it becomes all but impossible to trace the minerals to their source. So we see that the attempt to capture the full supply chain is a truly gargantuan task: revealing all the complexity of the 21st century global production of technology products.
Supply chains are often layered on top of one another, in a sprawling network. In order for each of those components to arrive on the final assembly line where it will be assembled by workers in Foxconn facilities, different components need to be physically transferred from more than supplier sites across 30 different countries. Visualizing this process as one global, pancontinental network through which materials, components and products flow, we see an analogy to the global information network. Where there is a single internet packet travelling to an Amazon Echo, here we can imagine a single cargo container. Standardized cargo containers allowed the explosion of modern shipping industry, which made it possible to model the planet as a massive, single factory.
In recent years, shipping boats produce 3. It has been estimated that one container ship can emit as much pollution as 50 million cars, and 60, deaths worldwide are attributed indirectly to cargo ship industry pollution related issues annually. Typically, workers spend 9 to 10 months in the sea, often with long working shifts and without access to external communications. Workers from the Philippines represent more than a third of the global shipping workforce. Similar to our habit to neglect materiality of internet infrastructure and information technology, shipping industry is rarely represented in popular culture.
The increasing complexity and miniaturization of our technology depends on the process that strangely echoes the hopes of early medieval alchemy. There are 17 rare earth elements, which are embedded in laptops and smartphones, making them smaller and lighter. At other times, charity might spectacularly intervene and prompt us to do less to even the unrepentant aggressor then they deserve. But when we do so, most times, the motive is not justice. Nor is justice simply abrogated; somewhere, somehow, the claims of justice will still need to be met. The cross teaches us that. Mercy always costs somebody something.
Sometimes, love judges that to be the acceptable thing. This might be. But whatever else it is, it is also wrong. But that is a case to be made at another time. Marc LiVecche is the executive editor of Providence. Marc completed doctoral studies, earning distinction, at the University of Chicago, where he worked under the supervision of the political theorist and public intellectual Jean Bethke Elshtain, until her death in August, Before all this academic stuff, Marc spent twelve years doing a variety of things in Central Europe—ranging from helping build sport and recreational leagues in post-communist communities, to working at a Christian study and research center, to leading seminars on history and ethics onsite at the former Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp in Poland.
This latter experience allowed him to continue his undergraduate study of the Shoah; a process which rendered him entirely ill-suited for pacifism. Marc lives in Annapolis, Maryland with his wife and children—and a marmota monax whistlepigging under the shed. He can be followed, or stalked, on twitter mlivecche. Additional publications can be found at his Amazon author page. Debra Erickson October 6, Paul D. Farhad Rezaei September 21, All rights reserved. Podcast Video Series. Upgrade your inbox Receive the weekly email for all the latest content. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Related articles. Marksism — No. Just War Tradition. Foreign Policy ProvCast: Ep. Receive expert analysis in your inbox.
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So now we have a request. But as the journalism we do is costly, we invite readers for whom The Times of Israel has become important to help support our work by joining The Times of Israel Community. Vernon Jones declares his intention to run for governor of Georgia as a Republican in Atlanta, on Friday, April 16,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Jessica Jones Case Study Essay map and essay will be Jessica Jones Case Study Essay display there as part of the Jessica Jones Case Study Essay Intelligent' show from Sep Sexism In Kurt Cobains Rape Me - Dec 31, Listening systems, even at this Jessica Jones Case Study Essay stage, were about power, class, and secrecy.