❤❤❤ How Does Witchcraft Affect Society

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How Does Witchcraft Affect Society



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Black Magic - National Geographic

Sometimes, though, normally logical people blame supernatural powers for their misfortune. Today, witch trials occur all over the world. Organizations like the United Nations and Stepping Stones Nigeria have found that the number of witch trials around the world is increasing. They are almost always violent, and sometimes they are deadly. When people get sick, witchcraft is sometimes seen as the cause.

This is especially true in places with poor medical care or few educational opportunities. Although belief in witchcraft is not limited to the developing world , witch trials occur more frequent ly there. Some of the accused are leaders in the scientific community or government advisers. A month later, a father and son were also burned to death after being accused of witchcraft. Accusations of witchcraft can be associated with good luck as well as bad luck. Some Nigerians explain this rapid accumulation of money and power as a sign of witchcraft.

As recently as , children accused of witchcraft in Nigeria were burned, poisoned, and abused. In , rumors that a successful soccer player was using witchcraft trigger ed a riot in Kinshasa, Congo. The riot and stampede killed 13 people. In India, landowning women are sometimes accused of witchcraft. Neighbors of the suspected witch may begin collecting firewood on which the suspect will burn. The women, often older widows, are scared enough to leave their homes.

Their neighbors then take their land. People who look different are often the victims of witch trials. In Tanzania, albino people are in danger of being killed for their skin and body parts. Since , more than 50 albinos have been killed for ritual use. Tanzanian witch-doctors believe the arms, legs, skin, and hair of albinos have special magic in them, and that their use will bring their clients good luck in love, life, and business. According to many legends, a baby that is not born head-first and with its face upwards is considered to be a witch. The so-called baby witches have been blamed for poor agricultural seasons or illnesses.

Many babies are abandon ed or killed. President Yahya Jammeh of The Gambia believes he is being targeted by witches. According to Amnesty International , as many as 1, Gambians accused of witchcraft have been arrested and torture d on orders from the president. At least two people are dead. So what can be done to stop witch trials or accusations of witchcraft? AIDS and poverty are very real sources of fear. People project their fears onto unfortunate victims. There has never been a proven case of witchcraft in all of human history.

On the other hand, there are thousands of victims of witch hunts. People accused of witchcraft, if they survive their ordeal at all, often end up with ruined lives. In the end, it is the witch hunters who should be feared more than the people whom they accuse of witchcraft. Quick action by respected authority figures is effective in stopping witch hunts. This raises an interesting question: If we all perform deviant acts and even break laws from time to time, who gets caught?

Which groups are most likely to be caught or arrested for criminal activity in the United States? Let's look at some basic demographic or population categories. Here are some statistics taken from the Bureau of Justice Statistics web site on the characteristics of the U. Conviction Offense. Criminal History. Substance Use and Treatment. Family background. Biological Theories American popular culture contains themes that play upon physical and mental abnormalities as determinants of deviance and crime, especially in the large number of " slasher " movies that abounded in recent decades. During the first half of this century, there were many attempts to develop biological theories of crime. Here are a few examples:.

An Italian physician and prison doctor he was the founder of the field of "criminal anthropology" Gould, After an extensive examination of prisoners' physiology he advanced a theory that criminals were atavists -- that is, throw-backs to an earlier evolutionary human form. Furthermore, these individuals displayed discernable physiological characteristics that could be used to identify them as deviant. Eventually this theory was debunked when further research was unable to support the claim that prisoners differed in physical characteristics from the the general population of non-criminals.

In short, he failed to use a control group in his research. William Sheldon ; Theory of body types and crime 's and s. Sheldon's work advanced the somatotype or "body build" school of criminological theory. Based upon a study of juvenile delinquents in Boston , MA , Sheldon concluded that the delinquents tended to have muscular and athletic builds. However his theory was refuted by further research which failed to link mesomorphic characteristics with the criminal population.

When control groups were used, criminals were no more likely to be mesomorphs than the non-criminal population. Sheldon's Theory. Chromosomes and Crime XYY In the s with the further development of the science of genetics, attention shifted to the role that genetic structure might plan in pre-disposing people to deviance and crime. It had been noted that a small proportion of males have an extra "Y" chromosome -- These individuals are sometimes referred to as "super males. Again, these findings were based on studies that lacked proper control groups. It was hypothesized that the extra Y chromosome predisposed them to violent behavior.

Media attention was focused on the theory when it was incorrectly reported that Richard Speck, convicted in of murdering eight student-nurses in Chicago , possessed this syndrome. It was later determined that he did not. It was further determined that XYY males are no more likely to commit violent crimes than the normal population of males. But, this case stimulated an interest in possible genetic bases for deviance that continues today. Functionalism American sociologist, Robert K.

Merton developed a theory that focused on strain in society that emerges when individuals and groups desire approved social goals the good things in life , but find themselves unable to attain them through socially approved means. For example, a college education may be the first step in achieving material success in life, but many individuals find this avenue closed to them. As a result, they may send money off to one of several "diploma mills" in this country that will happily print a "sheep skin" with whatever degree they desire on it!

Merton's theory uses "neutral" terminology to describe people who violate social norms to achieve socially approved goals. In the above example, our person holding a "fake" degree would be classified as an "innovator. Merton's Anomie Theory "Crime and Anomie", Merton's theory is broad enough to handle all categories of deviance, ranging from cheating on tests to pre-meditated murder, but are there any problems with it? Cultural Transmission School Shaw and McKay : Deviant behavior is learned behavior-- passed down from generation to generation. Why does the crime rate in certain city neighborhoods remain high through a succession of ethnic and racial groups that live in them? Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Sutherland, advanced a theory that specified how cultural transmission takes place, identifying a few key factors:.

Chambliss's "Saints and Roughnecks". Sykes and Matza's "Techniques of Neutralization" as justifications for deviant behavior. The role of power and privilege in the criminal justice system. Types of Crime:. The first four are often called violent crimes against person. The second four are called property crime. Each month, contributing agencies submit information on the number of Part I offenses Crime Index known to law enforcement; those offenses cleared by arrest or exceptional means; and the age, sex, and race of persons arrested.

Contributors provide only arrest data for Part II offenses. The Part I offenses, those that comprise the Crime Index due to their seriousness and frequency, are defined below:. Criminal homicide —a. Although previously noted by Mr. Martin, witchcraft "was as real manifestation of the Devil's efforts to overthrow 'God's Kingdom' as the. Their perseverance is supported by the idea of defending and upholding the Bible. Now that the explications and reasonings of the Puritans are now known, it should be considered wise to look at the mistakes in the chain of events of the trials, for there are many. The evidence of mistakes is contained in the words of Mr.

Henry Popkin, who claims "[t]he citizens of Salem have been concerned with scoring points against one another, with establishing their own superior virtue and the depraved character of their enemies" Brattle Thomas, a contemporary of the trials, also provides a record of the mistakes:. These confessors, as they are called, do very often contradict themselves, as inconsistently as is usual for any crazed, distempered person to do.

This the Salem gentlemen do see and take notice of; and even the judges themselves have at some times, taken these confessors in flat lies, or contradictions, even in the courts. Reverend Parris expresses that the whole community might recognize these errors when he says "[t]his way, unconfessed and claiming innocence, doubts are multiplied, many honest people will weep for them, and our good purpose is lost in their tears" Then, Reverend Parris proves the community dissent in saying "when I summoned the congregation for John Proctor's excommunication there were hardly thirty people come to hear it.

That speak a discontent, I think. Today's scholars, like the Puritans, obviously notice the mistakes in this historical tragedy. The ideas are presented, but scrutinous, correct perceptions of the event should include the reason for the ending of these trials and the overall damage and harm that remains recorded in history. The explanation for the trials' end is rather unusual, since"[a]s historians occasionally have pointed out, the executions did not stop because the people in Massachusetts suddenly ceased to believe in either the Devil or witchcraft; they stopped, simply and ironically, because of a legal question" Martin After completion of this mockery of judiciality, the physical effects are still recorded in history, for "the darkest page of New England history is, by common consent, that which is inscribed with the words Salem Witchcraft" Kittredge The effects of the Salem witch trials are "[b]y September 22 the court had tried and convicted 27 persons.

Nineteen were hanged, and one, Giles Corey, was pressed to death by stones. In addition, about 50 had confessed, were in prison waiting trial, and accusations had touched another " Zeichner After the damage's completion, redresses were made. It should be known that "[i]n the subsequent reaction, jurors admitted their errors, and Judge Samuel Sewall publicly confessed his culpability, as did Rev. John Hale, chief witness against Bridget Bishop. In , heirs of the alleged witches were voted compensation for their losses" Zeichner The driving theological source, according to Robert Callif, is difficult to determine:.

And whether to ascribe such power of commissioning Devils to the worst of Men, be not direct blasphemy, I leave to others better able to determine. When the Pharisees were so wicked as to ascribe to Beelzebub, the mighty works of Christ whereby he did manifestly shew forth his Power and Godhead then it was that our Saviour declard'd the Sin against the Holy Ghost to be unpardonable. According to the Puritans, the driving force of the trials is unknown, yet the fact remains that history can never be changed. The Salem witchcraft trials will never be forgotten. Hopefully now the facts are understood. Universally, the definition is unchangeable, the reasonings are often unclear, the mistakes prevalent, and the outcome is forevermore sealed as an event in history that is best left unrepeated.

To avoid unnecessary repetition, such mistakes are to be learned from.

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