⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Flowers In The Desert Monologue Essay

Tuesday, November 16, 2021 1:36:22 AM

Flowers In The Desert Monologue Essay



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Academic level:. We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, at AM. Total price:. It is one of Woolf's best-known novels. Clarissa Dalloway goes around London in the morning, getting ready to host a party that evening. The nice day reminds her of her youth spent in the countryside in Bourton and makes her wonder about her choice of husb Book From books - Mrs.

The nice day reminds her of her youth spent in the countryside in Bourton and makes her wonder about her choice of husband; she married the reliable Richard Dalloway instead of the enigmatic and demanding Peter Walsh, and she "had not the option" to be with a close female friend, Sally Seton. Peter reintroduces these conflicts by paying a visit that morning. View all 12 comments. Dec 18, Fergus rated it it was amazing. Is this amazing book the archetype for present-day feminine TV Soap Operas..? No, this little book is MUCH more than that You know those magical Chicken-Soup-for-The-Soul moments when everything in our random lives suddenly - why?

Have you had those? From his earliest childhood on. And they are the key to his densest novels. Now, back in the early twentieth century, books by Mr. You see, her wonderful husband Leonard was a Publisher. He founded the famed Hogarth Press. And he had continental publishing contacts, and thus clear access to the early classics of modern lit which back then were always so strangely out of stock in our world.

So when Leonard Woolf discovered the radical, stream-of-conscious world of Mr. Joyce, he let Virginia in on the secret. And the rest - and Mrs. Dalloway - was history! Magic moments! She exuded such a simple radiance, a radiance that extended itself to every one of those modern novels in that endlessly fascinating course she taught - all of which she so loved, and wanted to share with her young students. Now, hold on just a moment! Those dark, twentieth-century explorations of the forbidden, hidden recesses of the fallen human psyche? Writers like Joyce and Beckett? WHAT simple radiance do you mean to find in them? My prof was a bright- and starry-eyed scholar. Disabled from an early age, and a lifelong reader, she brought to her readings of these dark classics a joyful reverence, belonging to a human category few of us remember: Unvarnished innocence!

So there I was - an impressionable kid in her class who had recently - and woefully - come of age, and could see in her something that rose far above my fellow hippie classmates, all of whom were living wildly for the day. She had given me reason for rejoicing in the classics again - looking at them through her unspoiled, grateful eyes. And I wanted to thank her for it. Thanks, Mr. Joyce, Mrs. Woolf, Mrs. View all 27 comments. What a lark! What a plunge! There is a famous episode in the first section of Mrs Dalloway where a sky-writing aeroplane flies over London, soaring, spinning and plunging, writing in white letters of steam on a radiant sheet of blue sky. Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway u What a lark! Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway using this movement of the aircraft, gliding and spinning, soaring and plunging.

As for the readers, it may take a bit of blinking and squinting and misreading before they can make sense of what they are reading — Glaxo? But this does very little to characterise what happens in Mrs Dalloway. Clarissa Dalloway, a middle-aged upper-class woman, goes about her day, continually journeying down memory lane to the days of her youth. The same is true of Peter Walsh, her old sweetheart. Again, something similar happens to Septimus Smith, the shell-shocked WWI veteran who gradually drowns into a mental breakdown, schizophrenia, and death.

And yet again regarding his wife, Lucrezia, longing for her past life in Milan. Consciousness — consciousness, most of all! But she has a very distinctive way of using it. Not like a god; not quite like a movie camera floating and zooming around; rather like a radio set that tunes in and out of different mental frequencies. Perhaps — perhaps. But what is it? View all 26 comments. Feb 20, s. Each moment beautiful and powerful on their own when reflected upon, turned about and examined to breath in the full nostalgia for each glorious moment gone by, yet it is the compendium of moments that truly form our history of individuality. Yet, what is an expression of individuality if it is not taken in relation to all the lives around us, as a moment in history, a drop in a multitude of drops to form an ocean of existence?

Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself. However, before getting too far ahead into a broad scope, it is imperative to examine the immediate and singular implications of the novel. Much of Mrs Dalloway is deceptively simplistic, using the singular as a doorway into the collective, and offering a tiny gift of perfect that can be unpacked to expose an infinite depiction of the world. Take the title, for instance. In most cases, the central character is referred to as Clarissa Dalloway, yet it was essential to place Mrs Dalloway first and foremost in the readers mind to forever bind their impression of her as a married woman, an extension of Mr. Richard Dalloway. Just the indication of Clarissa as the wife of a member of government expands well beyond her status as an individual to open a conversation about social implications.

Clarissa is examined through a weaving of past and present as she tumbles through an existential crises in regards to her position as the wife of a dignitary and as a the perfect party host. Why seek pinnacles and stand drenched in fire? Might it consume her anyhow? The strange thing, on looking back, was the purity, the integrity, of her feeling for Sally. It was completely disinterested, and besides, it had a quality which could only exist between women.

Dalloway; not even Clarissa any more; this being Mrs. So there was no excuse, nothing whatever the matter, except the sin for which human nature had condemned him to death; that he did not feel. Doctors would have him locked away a dramatic contrast to the lively parties hosted by Clarissa , and even his own wife forges an identity of guilt and self-conscious sorrow for upholding a clearly disturbed husband. This is a haunting portrait of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, the latter fmuch like Woolf herself suffered. Septimus and Clarissa are like opposite sides to the same coin, however, and many essential parrallels exist between them.

Even his inability to feel is similar to the love felt by Clarissa: ' But nothing is so strange when one is in love and what was this except being in love? Peter so fears death that he follows a stranger through town, inventing an elaborate fantasy of romance to blot out the deathly darkness. Yet, it is in contrast to death that we find life. Death was defiance. Death was an attempt to communicate; people feeling the impossibility of reaching the centre which, mystically, evaded them; closeness drew apart; repute faded, one was alone.

What is most impressive about Mrs Dalloway is the nearly endless array of tones and voices that Woolf is able to so deftly sashay between. While each character is unique, it is the contrast between death and life that she weaves that is staggeringly wonderful. Right from the beginning, Woolf treats us to a feast of contrast. For it was the middle of June. The War was over, except for some one like Mrs. Foxcroft at the Embassy last night eating her heart out because that nice boy was killed…but it was over; thank Heaven — over.

It was June…and everywhere, thought it was still early, there was a beating, a stirring of galloping ponies, tapping of cricket bats… Cold death and warm life on a sunny June day all mingle together here, and throughout the novel. And we are constantly reminded of our lives marching towards death like a battalion of soldiers, each hour pounded away by the ringing of Big Ben. This motif is two-fold, both representing the lives passing from present to past, but also using the image of Big Ben as a symbol of British society.

Not only are the lifelines of each character put under examination, but the history of the English empire as well, highlighting the ages of imperialism that have spread the sons of England across the map and over bloody battlefields. Clarissa is a prime example of the Euro-centrism found in society, frequently confusing the Albanians and Armenians, and assuming that her love of England and her contributions to society must in some way benefit them. Beauty, the world seemed to say. Mrs Dalloway is nearly overwhelming in scope despite the tiny package and seemingly singular advancements of plot. Seamlessly moving between the minds and hearts of each character with a prose that soars to the stratosphere, Woolf presents an intensely detailed portrait of post-war Europe and the struggles of identity found within us all.

While it can be demanding at times, asking for your full cooperation and attention, but only because to miss a single second would be a tragic loss to the reader, this is one of the most impressive and inspiring novels I have ever read. Woolf manages to take the scale of Ulysses and the poetic prowess of the finest poets, and condense it all in pgs of pure literary excellence. Simple yet sprawling, this is one of the finest novels of the 20th century and an outstanding achievement that stands high even among Woolf's other literary giants.

This novel has a bit more of a raw feel when compared to To the Lighthouse , yet that work is nothing short of pure perfection, a novel so highly tuned that one worries that even breathing on it will tarnish it's sleek and shiny luster. Dalloway stands just as tall, however, both as a satire on society and a powerful statement of feminism. A civilization is made up of the many lives within, and each life is made up of many moments, all of which culminating to a portrait of human beauty.

Though at the end of life we must meet death, it is through death we find life. This title further emphasizes marriage as a means of climbing the social ladder, with Sally seen in the past as an impoverished, rebellious ragamuffin, yet through marriage gains an aura of dignity. Perhaps Sally becoming a housewife is a statement on the society of the times suffocating feministic freedoms. This emphasized the dying British society as a cold and artless being, devoid of emotion. This is most evident through Richard Dalloway, seen as a symbol of British society, as he fails to express his emotions of love towards his wife.

View all 63 comments. Feb 18, Violet wells rated it it was amazing Shelves: london , faves. Therefore I was surprised by just how much I loved and admired it this time round. Every moment alters the composition, the ebb and flow of memory and identity. And everything, very subtly, is experienced in relation to the inevitability of death. She does, now and again, get carried away with her metaphors. Extending them until they bear little relation with their starting point, like shadows that have no source.

And men get a pretty rough deal on the whole. She added an entire layer to my experience of the hidden riches of London. Perhaps - perhaps. Jan 24, Paul Bryant rated it really liked it Shelves: novels. You want a story? Lowbrow oik! For the first 50 pages I was really hating on her doileys and her oh-gosh-I-was-so-clever-to-marry-the-right-man untrammelled egotism. Oh, little me, and all of this sparkly stuff, how lucky and deserving I am! Except one, hah! What you have going on is style degree feedback appraisals!

So it does - towards the end - slightly turn into exquisite Woolfian background music. It is for that reason I cannot grant the elusive fifth star. One of the chapters in Ulysses is The Wandering Rocks in which several characters peregrinate through Dublin, and Joyce streams their consciousnesses, jumping from person to person. And of course, like Ulysses, Mrs D happens all on one day. And Bloomsday and Dallowday are set in capital cities in the month of June. View all 49 comments. This phrase is about Mr. Richard Dalloway who works for the government in the early 's in London, England. Clarissa Dalloway's nice steady husband rather ordinary, he will never be a member of the prestigious cabinet, nevertheless she loves him, he reciprocates that emotion She while not pretty at 52 but attractive , gives glamorous grand parties to her many friends and relatives, important people in society mostly.

The movers and shakers in the nation, the perfect hostess elegant, calm, sophisticated always says the right thing to others, still she feels bored, needing excitement. Clarissa's mind constantly wanders, thinking and pondering has she chosen the right path. The happy memories of the past, thirty years ago Dalloway is uneasy. The narrative of the book takes place in just one day, the ubiquitous giant Big Ben clock sounds the alarm, striking often every hour, and more as time flows by reminding her not only the party is near but life is limited, should not waste it in idle dreams, live in the present be content, in this crazy unpredictable, cold world Virginia Woolf's most popular novel, still has dark aspects the trying to forget , not possible A classic from another era, the vast sufferings of World War 1 soldiers is vaguely mentioned by one character the English One day in London after World War I Virgina Woolf said about her novel that she wanted to contrast the world view of the healthy and the mentally ill to thematize life and death, sanity and insanity and to critizise the social system by showing it in action.

This sums up the content of the book perfectly. The story focuses on Clarissa Dalloway and the people she encounters on one ha One day in London after World War I Virgina Woolf said about her novel that she wanted to contrast the world view of the healthy and the mentally ill to thematize life and death, sanity and insanity and to critizise the social system by showing it in action. The story focuses on Clarissa Dalloway and the people she encounters on one hand and the war veteran Septimus who suffers from a post traumatic stress disorder ptsd on the other hand. Both characters are connected at the end of the day through a psychiatrist and the suicide of Septimus.

The thoughts of the characters represent the tensions after the first world war: lesbian and marriagal love, careers and their failing, the growing emancipation of women, the psychological trauma of veterans, the incompetence of psychiatrists, wealth and poverty, a critical few on authorities and the British empire, as well as social torpor and emigration to Canada. Her life consists of glittering surfaces and high society, but as she moves through that world she looks beneath those surfaces in search of deeper meaning. Seeking for privacy, Clarissa leans toward introspection that gives her a profound capacity for emotion. Still she is always concerned with appearances and rarely shares her feelings with others and covers them up with superficial chatter and activities, which can make her seem shallow at times.

Constantly overlaying the past and the present, Clarissa strives to reconcile herself to life despite her potent memories. Her thoughts through the day, that are occupied with her dinner party, go back to the accident and early death of her sister, her own superficiality, her illness and her possible societal death. She doubts the decisions she made that have shaped her life and is uneasily aware that she sacrificed passion for the security and tranquility of an upper-class life. At times she wishes for a chance to live life over again and feels the oppressive forces in life. Her will to endure, however, prevails.

Septimus Shell shock is a kind of post traumatic stress disorder causing extreme tremors, hallucinations, and nervous breakdowns. Septimus is a veteran of World War I, who suffers from shell shock and is lost within his own mind. He feels guilty even as he despises himself for being made numb by the war. His psychiatrist has ordered him to notice things outside himself, but he has already removed himself from the physical world. He suffers from haluzinations, particularly including his dead friend Evans.

The world outside of Septimus is threatening, and the way Septimus sees that world offers little hope. On the surface, Septimus seems to oppose Clarissa, but they share many characteristics and thought patterns. They share a fear of oppression and a love for Shakespeare but most importantly reveal the contrast between the conscious struggle of a working-class veteran and the blind opulence of the upper class. His suffering questions the legitimacy of the English society he fought to preserve during the war. Septimus chooses to escape his problems by killing himself, which ultimately helps Clarissa to accept her own choices, as well as the society in which she lives.

The great British Empire Queen Mary and King George in In the 19th the British Empire seemed invincible and expanded into many other countries, particularly Afrika, becoming the largest empire the world had ever seen. World War I was a violent reality check which made the Englisch vulnerable on their own land, for the first time in nearly a century. Britian technically won the war through allies, but the extent of devastation England suffered made it a victory in name only.

Entire communities of young men were injured and killed. The characters in Mrs Dalloway, including Clarissa and Septimus, feel the failure of the empire as strongly as they feel their own personal failures. Those citizens who still cling to English traditions are old and turning into artifacts. The old empire faces an imminent demise, and the loss of the traditional and familiar social order leaves the English at loose ends.

London Dockers' march during strikes in for better working conditions. The Fear of Death Thoughts of death are constantly present, which makes even mundane events and interactions meaningful, sometimes even threatening. At the start of her day, when Clarissa goes out to buy flowers for her dinner party, she remembers a moment in her youth when she suspected a terrible event would occur. Clarissa lived through the deaths of her father, mother, and sister, the mass losses of the war and has grown to believe that living even one day is dangerous. Septimus faces death most directly and even though he fears it, he finally chooses it over what seems to him a direr alternative—living another day. It comes in many disguises, including religion or social convention.

Other characters in the novel want to gain power and dominate others, enforcing their believes on them. More subtle oppressors cause harm by supporting the repressive English social system. Though Clarissa lives under the weight of that system herself and often feels oppressed by it, she still accepts the patriarchal English society, which makes her partly responsible for Septimus death as well and an oppressor herself. But at the end of the novel she reflects on his suicide and accepts responsibility, though other characters are much more to blame, which suggests that everyone is in some way complicit in the oppression of others. Sometimes the mood is humorous, but an underlying sadness is always present. You have to enjoy consciousness-stream to appreciate the novel, but if you do, this is quite perfect.

View all 19 comments. England in A land between world wars, between tradition and modernity. Virginia Woolf's fourth novel, "Mrs Dalloway" This book offers many partial even very modern approaches, reflecting the role of woman in society, the importance of marriage, the mental illness as a sign of our time, the consequences of war, the power of medicine and much more Jan 24, Fabian rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites. I first read Mrs. This time around I found that the most difficult portion of Mrs.

Dalloway is I first read Mrs. It could be said that the emotion within each individual defies exactly who that character is. The all-knowing narrator in Mrs. Dalloway is like the great revolving eye which transcendentalists like Emerson and Thoreau often mention. It knows all, but it also rides the collective wave of thought and feeling itself in Woolf that feeling often deals with growing older, dying.

Confusing--it is meant to be like a wave washing over you as you stand alone; a delicate little flower before the awesome tide. View 1 comment. Jul 04, Michael rated it it was amazing Shelves: recs. My full review, as well as my other thoughts on reading, can be found on my blog. Although famous for focusing upon a single day in the life of one woman, Mrs. Dalloway in fact ricochets from one interior life to the next, collapsing the present into the past as it does so.

The novel is far less interested in defining Clarissa Dalloway as an individual than in exploring the many-sided effects she has on an assortment of others; by the end of the narrative, Woolf has offered her readers not a neat My full review, as well as my other thoughts on reading, can be found on my blog. The novel is far less interested in defining Clarissa Dalloway as an individual than in exploring the many-sided effects she has on an assortment of others; by the end of the narrative, Woolf has offered her readers not a neat portrait of a personality but several impressionistic sketches of the same subject.

Woolf's multifaceted characterization successfully thwarts attempts to sum up Mrs. Dalloway or to reduce her to her relationship with any one person. Likewise, the author's elaborate but accessible prose resists careless reading, forcing her readers to approach the short novel deliberately. Dalloway was Woolf's first success at writing experimental long fiction, and it remains the perfect introduction to her mature work. View all 11 comments. In this second reading, I realized that although I have liked the book after my first reading, I hardly have understood it. While this is true to an extent, it is more than that. Through one stream of thoughts, she revisits her youth, recalling In this second reading, I realized that although I have liked the book after my first reading, I hardly have understood it.

Through one stream of thoughts, she revisits her youth, recalling the choices she made, relationships that were broken, and love unforgotten. Another stream takes her through her present life, her relationship with her husband and daughter, and her life as an upper-class society lady. Not only that. Virginia is well known for her style of writing. Her use of stream of consciousness has both attracted and deterred readers. I for a reader was attracted, although it was a difficult experience at first.

The stream of consciousness is one of the most fascinating and colourful ways of writing. The thoughts, feelings, and reactions of characters, combined with an objective narrative have a personal allure. However, I personally felt that in Mrs. Dalloway, the stream of conscious writing was easy to follow and in particular interesting. While the story centers on the life and relationships of Clarissa, Virginia also portrays the social, economic, and political changes that have and are taking place within London following World War I through the thoughts and observations of the characters.

Septimus Warren Smith, I felt, to be a subplot. Through his story, Virginia brings out the suffering of the mentally impaired. The mental and physical pain, the delusions, the desperation that ultimately paves way for committing suicide, are well and truly portrayed that the readers are overwhelmed with pity. She goes further to show the suffering their loved ones go through. At the same time, Virginia turns her attention to treatment that is directed at these patients and exposes the ineffectiveness of them, especially those institutionalizing them and being kept in isolation.

These stories, the characters, their thoughts, observations, their points of view are presented in her beautiful, poetic, lyrical, and colourful writing. It was such a pleasure to read those beautiful, poetic, and lyrical writing, page by page, as it paints a vivid picture of the story that she is telling. It is amazing how much depth is carried in this short novel. No matter how many books I have read of her or how many times I have read her, Virginia Woolf never fails to amaze me with each new reading.

She is such a brilliant writer and perhaps, the best woman author of the twentieth century. I simply loved the read this second time around, and am very happy that I was finally able to understand and appreciate this masterpiece. View all 20 comments. A few introductory comments on my rating and review: My rating is reflective of my experience with this book and not the actual impact this book has had on literature and other people over the years.

That is not the case here — it is very easy for me to tell why others would like this book and I think it was very interesting at its core; it is just the delivery that did not work for me. I hesitate to actually A few introductory comments on my rating and review: My rating is reflective of my experience with this book and not the actual impact this book has had on literature and other people over the years. I hesitate to actually say that I read this. It is only through internet searches after I was done that I was able to pull all the events together coherently.

Now, on to the review: I think the story was very interesting. Also, from what I have read about Virginia Woolf, it is very reflective of her life experiences. But, I went low with my star rating because the stream of consciousness delivery had me lost and disinterested most of the time. I did this as audio and I am glad I did because I am not sure I could have stuck with it if I was reading it. As a famous classic on many must read lists, I get it. But, it is one of those that I think not a lot of people are going to get into. So, be warned before you go out to choose a classic and hope that Mrs. Oct 18, Kalliope rated it really liked it Shelves: britain , fiction-english , literary-classics.

I love travelling by train, and this is one of the best environments for reading. Luckily I got a seat for myself and the coach is pleasant. There is so much light. How enjoyable! What a funny way to start the book. Someone says that Clarissa Dalloway is setting off to buy the flowers. But here is the famous quote What a lark! She is walking through this green and fresh and cool park. Did she mention that she was going to get the flowers? She meets a certain Hugh Whitbread and talks of doctors. I always forget the names when reading. This Peter must have been her love. She is now 52; earlier the age of 18 is mentioned.

We see her at two different ages then. And we hear more about her would-be husband. Right at the beginning. I wonder where this is taking us. Now I want to know more about her husband Richard. What is he like? What a weird thing to say, that it was silly to have other reasons for doing things. Much rather would she have been one of those people like Richard who did things for themselves.

This quote makes me even more curious with the husband. Peter is half Indian half English. He seems more intriguing now; I feel curiosity to know more of his background. Offering newspapers now. No, gracias. I do not have the least interest in reading one. My treat is to have these hours to read my books and continue with dreamy Clarissa instead of current affairs. Now she mentions flowers: delphiniums, sweet peas, arum lilies and carnations. Carnations are the flowers most fittingly worn by gypsies.

Scarlet carnations. He is What is this noise thing? Those svelte windmills fruit of the new aerodynamics and huge and powerful turbines in this barren landscape of La Mancha. I wonder what the dear mythical figure of Don Quijote would have made of these modern windmills; he could not have thought they were giants, they are too slender. The noise is from a car. But the explosion has not brought memories from the war to the characters. She mentions the sounds heard and the harmonies and describes the space between sound. I like this. Poor Lucrezia; she says that to love makes one solitary. What a sad thing to say. And now this strange sentence, that it is cowardly for a man to say he would kill himself.

It makes me very uncomfortable to read such a premonition for Virginia. I am finding myself reading back. Back to Clarissa, now in her living room, looking at the silver and mending her silk dress, with the thimble. My mother always reminded me to use the thimble, which I never quite got the hang of it. I cling to dates and to hard facts whenever they are included, otherwise I feel like swimming in the open sea.

So, Peter was in love with Clarissa in the 90s, and talks about the death of her soul. And five years have passed since the end of the war. And Peter now is 53, so one year older than Clarissa. And here is another scene with flowers, and this time there are holly hocks, dahlias. I will have to look in google images to see what holly hocks look like. Make them float with heads cut off and make them float on water.

This also reminds me of Odette who had her flowers floating on water, giving the scene a whiff of a brothel. Aunt Helen thinks that it is wicked to treat flowers like that. Quite right! So, yes, Proust is right in mentioning this as a sign of vulgarity. And now they bring lunch. Nowadays the service in trains is as it was in planes before. My tray arrives. I suppose I am hungry and welcome the interruption. I put my book aside and note the green and ivory of the seats and walls of the train coach. The two women kiss on the lips. I perk up as Peter Walsh arrives to visit Clarissa.

This accelerates the pulse of the plot and my curiosity is awakened. Do I detect a smack of envy in Peter? So, he does like that importance of the two men after all, if he can also obtain a benefit. Nothing exists outside us except a state of mind. Another modernist concept and representational issues again. Once one is aware of this, there is no going back.

There is a comment now on the strange name of Septimus. So, it is indeed a strange name. It wasn't just my idea. I think I am getting the hang of how consciousness shifts from one person to another and it is through this subtle use of the third person. One can feel the depression in this book, in spite of all the beautiful things mentioned. The danger had no name, not yet. The tiny metal spoons clanked against the insides of the hot china.

They sat in the garden conversing in short and lively phrases, their tense little exchanges collided with one another. They looked at one another with disbelief lurking in their eyes. They still hadn't surmounted the invisible wall that stood before them. They evaluated it mentally. They skirted the issue at hand, superficially addressing it, asking each other about it, evoking it. They were at a loss. The day was the same as any other, a cool and bright December afternoon where the first breezes of the precocious evening caused the thick foliage of the old oaks to tremble in the courtyard. He cleared his throat before each sentence, as if he was trying to expel a cold.

He did that when he was nervous. Jules robotically smoothed the sharp crease in his black pants. The old woman was shaken to the depths of her soul. Her chest rose with greater effort than usual and her lips were stiff, a sign of great anxiety for her. Luckily her children were there, all around her. They were just as shaken, but they were present and attentive. Her children, who had not been children for quite some time. It was quite possible that she did this on purpose to annoy everyone else. And she saw Jules, the radiologist son-in-law, athletic and elegant with his ponytail held up by a rubber band, trying his best to not appear jealous of his beloved wife, Gabrielle, eighteen years his junior.

Nearly old, them too, thought the old woman. She grappled with her emotions. She faced her fears. She went to battle. They had to pick up Alexandre, her son wandering in the twists and turns of madness, her son who had once threatened her with a butcher's knife, her son whom she had lost for more than forty years, her son of so much love and so much pain. Leaning over him, she watches him sleep. The spectacle of crumbled houses and people huddled under tents in the streets made his skin crawl. Alexandre brought with him just one little suitcase and a feeling of confusion accentuated by a supplementary dose of medication before his departure from the Institution.

Just after settling into the little house, he stretched out on the bed in his room and, without even taking off his shoes, immediately fell into a deep sleep. He did not notice any of that. He just sought out his bed as though it was an abyss he could sink into. Forty-two years, three months, and eighteen days was the length of his absence. And he came back one year, to the very day, after Francis died. My God, what message are you sending me? A fantasy or a privilege that would not have been acceptable from the other children. Not even his father. He is almost an old man in her eyes, a body exhausted by illness, a body that never knew maturity and fulfillment——a fresh fruit that has faded. She is the mother of an old man. Does he still know who she is? Will he even recognize her after all this time?

Should she be afraid of him even though Dr. Durand-Franjeune says that he no longer has violent outbursts, that the years and years of medication have broken the inner workings of his illness and filled in the cracks of his being? This makes her tremble. Does he remember the little boy who ran after her in the shimmering light of the oaks? He runs his hands over his face once, twice, three times, as if he could somehow change the scenery, and return to the Institution, to the life from which he had just been torn.

He just went through an ordeal, the scale of which was overwhelming. He's feeling an emotion beyond fear, worse than a threat to his life. All the voices in his head go wild. A feeling of pure panic, like the one he tried to escape by running incessantly around the concrete pillar of the living room of the Institution. But here it was, the pillar was deep in the abyss, he saw it there and it must have weighed tons. He could never bring it back and replant it in the middle of his life. The stench of the wet paint smacks him in the face, the odor is like a wall he's run into.

Where are the others? Where are Joseph and Miss Laurette and Maria? Where are his friends, Gogo and Samuel? He hears the birds singing and fluttering in the trees outside and thinks about the cookies in his pocket. That is, if birds haven't stolen them from him. He'll have to kill the birds, all of them. This is not the Institution, and his legs feel the need to run and jump over the walls, but his legs feel weighed down, heavy. A herd of voices gallops through his head, causing him pain. He sees a woman with white hair leaning over him, looking at him intensely; he smells her perfume, he can hear her beating heart.

The old woman can no longer leave. She is stunned and cannot run away, her knees are about to give. Alexandre sees her in the bright light that passes through the glass slats in the little window above his bed. The galloping stops for an instant, just an instant. Translated by Nathan H. Forthcoming, with a foreword by Kaiama L. Glover, in Fall from the University of Virginia Press. By arrangement with the publisher. In this excerpt from a novel by Algeria's Mohamed Magani, folk tales foreshadow a family's sorrow. In the middle of an interior facade sunken in abiding shadow hung a water-swollen goatskin lashed to an iron rod.

It wept lazy droplets into a broad, flat-edged metal saucer. Never, said Sefwane, had a member of his family been bitten or stung. His father died, mourned by his mule, which refused its fodder and passed away shortly thereafter. One month before his daughter was to wed, Sefwane, who never spoke of things that had been, shared this scrap of the past with her. The memory had suddenly risen up from the depths of his own tender childhood years. Sefwane continued to rattle off memories from his childhood, noticing that they soothed her, procured her moments of respite from the apprehensions and uncertainties of her imminent new life.

Having exhausted his personal memories, he moved on to tales and legends heard from grandparents, parents, grownups from the greater family. The days flew by; but a dozen and his daughter would be wed; she was showing signs of anxiety. He began with the following fable:. In a hamlet perched on a plateau, a man and a woman lived in poverty. A thatch-roofed hut with walls of mud provided their only shelter, and a donkey their only keep.

The man used the animal to transport goods and earn money. All they had in the world was this means of subsistence. One evening in April, three men armed to the teeth came, kicked in his door, and ordered him outside. He rushed to obey, falling before them with fear in his belly and panic in his eye. He knew nothing good could come, night or day, of such unexpected guests, who left slaughter, terror, and misery in their wake. But he was soon reassured: they wished him no harm and required no payment of any kind. They simply wanted his donkey. He surrendered it to them, along with the saddlebags, into which his visitors stuffed six big black plastic bags and then vanished into the darkness that now covered the land.

Mute with fear, and without the slightest hint of curiosity, the man hastened to hide himself away in his hut. Once he had told his wife what happened, she asked him many questions about what was in the bags. The only description the man could supply was of their size and the strings that tied them tight. He never saw the three men again; they had disappeared for good. But the next day, the donkey found its way home in the hours before dawn, wandering through an untended wheatfield amid a riot of spring wildflowers, still laden with saddlebags and plastic bags alike as its owner looked on, dumbfounded. The contents of these plastic bags proved, for the man and the woman, a source of profound stupefaction mingled with joy and fear. Bundles of a thousand dinars cascaded from the upended bags.

The man and the woman had the presence of mind to bury the spoils in a hole inside their shabby hut, and soon forgot all about the source of their windfall. Now that safety had returned to their lives, those lives turned upside down. They built a big house and bought the surrounding land. As for the donkey, it was treated to a luxurious barn equipped with such amenities as heating and air conditioning. After all, it had slaved away for them as both ox and donkey. All the fairy tales of the civil war, with or without the contribution of a donkey, prominently featured the spontaneous enrichment of simple folk after a series of singular events.

The safekeepers never saw them again. They kept quiet about the spoils in their possession, resorting to them when the just exercise of their patience seemed to them to have reached its reasonable limit. Beneficiaries of manna fallen from heaven, they went on to enjoy the affluent lives made possible by the money and jewels. Rumor named them. Sefwane cited these names to his daughter, and she was surprised to hear among them those of three families she knew—families of friends, even—but at the same time, she was indignant to discover that these families owed their fortunes to men with bags and ropes, men who were, moreover, true believers with lethal convictions about the uncrossable line between good and evil.

Her father nodded. She told him she was happy to belong to a family that led a comfortable life free of suspicion of theft or dishonesty. Sefwane nodded again, his face awash in utter agreement. He did not neglect to reassure his daughter about her immediate future: she was about to join an honorable family, safe from want, well-to-do long before the advent of the civil war and its fables. Her future held exhilarating possibilities. His daughter Yesma could dream of everything a girl of eighteen springs might dream of.

Mainly, a husband just one year older, accommodating and open to her plans for the future. With his approval, she had chosen the school of life first, and would be free to resume her studies in biology whenever she wished. One subject impassioned her above all else: the preservation of the Saharan bee, a species threatened by the introduction of the Tunisian bee into its natural habitat. Astonishing creature, the Saharan bee!

They could travel up to six miles in search of red date trees whereas Tunisian bees had a range of barely two. Her father approved of her resolve and told her the very last from the series of fables of troubled times, the one that brought them to an end, stripped them of all wonder, and called down the intervention of powers far greater than man. The wife of a wealthy informer who had gone underground due to his faith and then resurfaced filthy rich, a convert to commercialism tinged with religion, asked her husband to reserve a Turkish bath for just the two of them.

Money opens all doors, and closes them too. Once they were naked in the steam room, she asked him for two hundred dinars, to be handed over at once. His wife insistently demanded the sum from her flabbergasted husband. You will have nothing on you, nothing. He had then turned that day to an album of family photos and begun to leaf through it with Yesma by his side. They had begun studying biology and were no doubt reporting to Yesma the salient facts of their new experience as students. Sefwane would hear the three young women laughing, and no one in the house dared disturb them or interfere with their time together except to bring them fruit and cakes. As he carefully pried the photo of his daughter loose from the album, he noted, that night, a rare silence from her room.

It lasted for a good forty-five minutes. His ear barely made out the murmur of hushed voices. At last, the two visitors reappeared and headed for the exit, silent and serious, in something of a hurry to leave. Yesma remained in her room. Sefwane fell in step behind her two friends. He had pocketed the photo and intended to have it enlarged and framed so he could find a fitting place for it in the living room or hang it in the hallway.

He would also have it shrunk to a wallet-sized print he could carry around with him. He knocked on the door and heard his daughter almost scream: I want to be alone! Uncertain, he waited outside the door until his wife waved him over to join her in the kitchen. Yesma refused to see anyone. And that must certainly have had something to do with the visit from her two friends. Nor would she let her two brothers into her room. Sefwane gathered his family for a summit: under no circumstances was his daughter to be disturbed. It was just under a week till the ceremony, and no word could be allowed to leak out about abnormal behavior from a girl about to be married. Yesma persisted in her isolation as if overcome by a sudden desire to dissociate herself from her own family.

She avoided all contact and would not open her door to anyone, refusing to eat or change clothes. With the certainty of the marriage up in the air and incomprehension increasing, anxiety crept through the household, obliterating all signs, expressions, and indications of preparations for an imminent celebration. A palpable unease set in among the occupants and neighbors come to help them and share in their joy.

The two friends came back one last time. The girls disappeared behind closed doors even longer than ever before. His wife stopped him short in his rush to show Yesma the framed photo. Her face wan with pain, she did her best to speak calmly. His legs cut right out from under him, Sefwane dropped to the bed, on the verge of passing out. He took his head in his hands, as if to howl. He had first announced the news to their two mutual friends, the biology students who often visited Yesma. Tasked with conveying his decision, they had first tried to change his mind, make him aware of the pain she would suffer, her and her family. Sefwane recovered his wits and then calmly went over the facts as if to convince someone else, an incredulous onlooker.

She had intercepted them when they came out of the room and begged them to tell her why Yesma had locked herself away and would not speak to anyone but them. They had the hardest time in the world revealing the brutal truth to her—the cancellation of the marriage—without being able to explain. They found her sitting on the floor, curled up in the corner to the left of the door. Her face exuded despair. She was a shadow of herself, the light gone out of her eyes. She was a ghost of herself, in a loose white dressing gown that hung from her like a shroud.

Sefwane and his wife helped her to her feet and laid her down on the bed. Yesma burst into sobs. You have all the time in the world to get married. A heavy silence immured all present in embarrassment; they wished to speak of their distress, their grief. Sefwane hung up that very instant and let out an oath; he no longer wanted anything to do with that man or his family. The jewels will pay for the humiliation we have suffered, he thought. The why of the cancellation had yet to be determined. The two men knew and liked each other, had coffee together now and then, discussing business and supporting each other when needed, in one way or another.

The union of the two families grew clearer, stronger, with their every encounter. When asked to intervene, Sefwane had activated his network of acquaintances. When called upon to give his opinion and arbitrate, he had always sided with his friend without failing to enumerate his wrongdoings in private. What of his family, then? What fault could be found with them? He could not bring himself to accept the facts and locked himself up at home, brooding over the dire fate that had struck his family.

When he was not with his daughter, trying to cheer her up, he spent most of his time in his room, pretending to be engrossed in the pile of newspapers one son or another had brought him. Leaning over the pages, he remembered that he had once taught drawing in elementary school, felt pleasure in guiding those little hands. He recalled his colleagues: some of them had given up teaching when the village school had gone up in smoke.

Others had stuck to it and conducted class in impromptu shacks. They had confided their dreams to one another, his own consisting of sliding into pigeon keeping, raising messenger birds atop the mountain that overlooked the village. Within his family, his daughter Yesma had a soft spot for Saharan bees. Two decades earlier, he had nurtured the ambition of ushering his village out of isolation with pigeons. Deep down in their hearts, father and daughter alike had kept the hope alive of serving a cause without asking anything in return. In an initial display of social withdrawal, Sefwane spent his days cloistered at home. The humiliation, silence from family members, the prying eyes of neighbors come to ask after them—these formed a conspiracy that forced him to shut himself away.

It permeated the air and water in the house. Seeing to his affairs came to a brusque halt: he no longer had the heart to host festivities in the banquet hall he owned. After a dozen or so difficult days, he informed his family of his next trip to his home village. A simple inspection of the first house they had had as a family, where Yesma and their first boy had been born. He also planned to do a few small repairs as needed, make it look less like a place that had been abandoned, keep rust from devouring the locks.

The night before he left, he spoke day and night with Yesma, doing his utmost to convince her to come with him. For a long time she remained undecided, then announced her desire to stay in Algiers and think about other life paths. Sefwane took these words as evidence of a positive attitude and refrained from insisting further. Setting to work as soon as he arrived, he tackled housekeeping by dusting and cleaning all surfaces, horizontal and vertical, with soapy water, rags, a broom, and a sponge. Next he polished all the furniture until it shone. The house was only a single story—so much the better, thought Sefwane.

His house would lose neither its traditional charm nor the features his family had known. He plugged in the TV and allowed himself a little nap; for years now, a barely visible screen and murmuring sound had exerted a restful influence upon him. He waited until night had fallen to go out and wondered when he would be able to shed this recent habit. On previous trips back, it had been his custom to meet up with a circle of childhood friends—teachers, municipal and postal employees—after cleaning the house from top to bottom.

This time, crippling indecision led him to delay seeing them. Darkness smoothed the final pallor of day. But how else could it be? The issue of the canceled marriage sprang forth from walls and ceiling. The total eclipse of hope in her life was but a passing thing. She would gain confidence, and time would play its part as a great healer. The song dwindled as he neared a grocery, no doubt the only one still open. Sefwane wanted cheese and some yogurt.

To his great surprise, he ran into an old acquaintance inside. The two men emerged from the store rattling off memories from youth and young manhood as they walked. Then his friend from the village informed him of the arrival of a stranger of a certain age who had been discreetly asking questions about him two weeks or so ago. The would-be in-laws owed it to themselves to conduct a prenuptial investigation of his hometown, birthplace of himself and his parents, a classic approach aimed at avoiding any unpleasant surprises and ensuring the good reputation of the other party in the new joining of families.

The second thing he had been told that night in the village where he was born plunged him into restive perplexity, like a troubled and unsettled slumber. Rumor had it that beneficiaries of manna fallen from the sky who refused to return the spoils were paying with their lives. There were three such in the village already, and all awaited the next. Sefwane reiterated the unimpeachable source of his funds without going into details well-known to friends, neighbors, and everyone, he thought. As in the capital, towns and villages across the land had a sort of self-imposed mental curfew, and only when such a barrier was crossed would the page indeed be turned on the dark decade. He pushed on to the edge of the village while, as it had been doing for years, an artificial fog formed and spread, born of dust from the many aggregate quarries along the vast dorsal flank of the mountain, so very close by.

All around him, the shapes of things became fluid, unreal, uncertain. Sefwane reached the final buildings, well beyond the former public dump dug into a deep crater, once a reservoir of quenching water for humans and animals. He returned to the very spot where, in the shadow of a wall one night in the year , he had glimpsed a dark mass advancing behind a moving shadow. He saw the scene again now like something from a film noir. The absolute secret enclosed in the final, impenetrable folds of his existence had just been born. From Un Etrange Chagrin. By arrangement with the author. As Elfiye opened the door she turned her head slowly to tell the one behind her how much of a mess the house was.

Elfiye had already taken her jacket off and gone into the kitchen. Apparently, it blocks the view. It would be a sin to cut down a beautiful tree like that. They sat across from one another in two dark green velvet armchairs, staring wistfully, wine glasses in hand. We drink to Emir! He smiled. Elfiye stared at her glass. I always believed in your talent. Elfiye lifted her eyes from her glass and looked at the person across from her. How long had it been, fifteen years? Or was it sixteen? The way he looked at her, his attitude and air, it was just the same. His voice is just a little deeper. She stood up, replenished the wine glasses, and sat back down across from her guest.

She lifted her glass again. Now he smiled fully. Her heart had jumped into her throat, and for a minute she stood there scanning her memory; she knew that voice, it was unforgettable. Its owner plunged back into the darkness and came out of a door somewhere behind the store, and when he stood in front of Elfiye she realized who it was. She saw that he was still embarrassed and felt sorry for him. Without a second thought, she put her hand on his arm and asked when he was getting off work. Did he want to go somewhere to sit and talk? Now, in her apartment, Elfiye knew she somehow had to broach the subject but she was afraid of offending him, so she asked about his mother and his siblings, and if there was any news about what their old mutual friends had been up to.

Then she talked for a long time about her own life and explained her situation at the university. Untwisting the corkscrew from the cork of a new bottle of wine, Emir scowled. Taking the glass from Emir, Elfiye got up the nerve to break her silence. Emir opened the window. The fresh Bosphorus air filled the room, urging her on a little more. I mean, I had to be. She lit two cigarettes and gave him one. I abandoned you. I was clueless. You did this on your own, and for how many years? Expecting you to understand me would have been a huge mistake because I was having trouble just understanding myself.

These are long processes. Long and hard. This was my issue. It would be easier to talk to him that way, without looking at him. That isolation? Physically, mentally, economically, socially, pick your category. You know how society defines the other—I mean the criteria it puts in place in order for someone to be declared the other. With a no-win situation like that, is your war going to be with society or yourself? Who are you up against? And which comes first?

What are we trying to defeat and who are we going to shout our victory cry at? But not standing up to them. I mean your attitude and demeanor, the anxiety of proving something. Using nothing but your body. When people come together after all the years that separated them, are they hoping for the ability to embrace, to feel, to—perhaps—make love, to look each other in the eyes just as before? For Elfiye and Emir, that was it. Beneath the hand that caressed her arched back she became the Elfiye on the French balcony again; in the excitement of fondling another woman, in the anxiety of being shamed and in the comfort of sheltering in one who knows her as she is.

Her hands are still so small , Elfiye thought. But why did you choose the name Emir? You remember that I continued at Starbucks after we broke up, right? She was a manager there. For two years she allowed me to run between hospitals, hormone treatments, and psychiatrists, I mean she took care of me. Someone had seen me, they saw me fighting; they saw that I was never Pelin, and that I was pushing back against the state so I could become the person I wanted to be. Emir means command. But hey, it also sounds nice on my lips—Emir. Elfiye straightened herself up from off the floor. Which one had been harder? Can you even compare pain? Elfiye wondered. I asked myself what kind of woman do you want to love , and I told you honestly. You were like my solstice, because you recreated me as something else.

Putting up with masculinity. Everywhere she looked, the traces of masculinity were there: school, the workplace, the cinema. The state. You had to read nothing, watch nothing, or for that matter just sit in the dark. Sometimes she thought this toxin might even be seeping through the walls. I got scared. To be a man, I had to be dominant. Me too , she thought. I fought for this name, and I did it alone. From Elfiye. Wild, worldly, polyglot. Malaysia is a country where at least four languages predominate—Malay, English, Chinese and Tamil—alongside a plethora of regional dialects, indigenous languages, and creole languages. This cultural and linguistic plurality has been the historical reality of Malaysia long before it became a nation. Successive waves of migration from all over the Malay Archipelago, China, South Asia, and the Arab world have added yet more layers to the inextricable diversity of Malaysian society.

On the island of Borneo, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are home to more than a hundred indigenous tribes and sub-ethnic groups, each with their own language or distinct dialect. The Malay language itself is a living testament to the heterogeneity of its origins. The vast compendium of loanwords in Malay from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Tamil, Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, and English reveal lines of connection through maritime trade routes, culture and religion, imperialism and colonialism, migration and globalization. Political attempts to organize and control the organic chaos of Malaysian society—particularly the widespread social engineering that followed the racial riots of May —imposed reductive categories of race, religion, and language that persist to this day.

The imagined community, as defined by the nation-state and perpetuated by its institutions, is a feeble reflection of the intrinsic plurality and ever-evolving complexity of Malaysian cultural life. While the emphasis of Malay as the national language was crucial for postcolonial nation building, the centrifugal messaging of prioritized and relegated languages created a hierarchy of importance that reinforced notions of self and other, venturing beyond language given the nexus between the former and ethnicity in the country. In a few instances, the elevation of the Malay language resulted in deliberate erasure of regional languages. In the name of national language and cultural assimilation, in the late s a corpus of works in Iban and other languages from the Bornean state of Sarawak were reportedly buried by the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Institute of Language and Literature , the government body tasked with the development and regulation of Malay.

Oral literature is a literary heritage of many groups within the Malaysian polity, especially indigenous communities. Whether this heritage is passed down and flourishes from generation to generation depends on political will and support for its continued existence. This period saw the emergence of many writers who tested the boundaries of literary form and content. In the decades that followed, however, state bureaucratization and institutionalization increasingly alienated the younger generation of writers, many of whom have sought independent channels to publish their works. For all its envisioning as a language for all Malaysians, after more than half a century Malay literature is still widely considered to be written by and for Malays.

A commanding presence in the public, educational, and state-funded cultural arena has not yet translated to a role in literature which transcends ethnicity. The dearth of translation between local languages in Malaysia further exacerbates insularity among literary circles and readers. Malaysian-Chinese literary production, known as Mahua literature, often reveals an underlying crisis of belonging in the Malaysian-Chinese experience. Celebrated beyond national borders, notably in Taiwan where many of them have settled, Mahua writers have long perceived themselves as marginalized by the politics of race and language in Malaysia.

Malaysian-Tamil literature, by contrast, is less well known outside its immediate circles. Scholars note that several important anthologies of short stories have been published, but without serious translation efforts, these works are not accessible to most Malaysian readers. Traditional print media has been a vital space to nurture and publish writers in different languages. If writing, like other art forms, is considered a way of conversing with life itself, being a writer in Malaysia affords little material payoff to even sustain life. Writing is almost never the sole source of income for writers. Writers are respected and celebrated in the mainstream, statist realm and fervent independent circles alike; however, they are seldom considered public intellectuals, save for the National Laureates who themselves are selected only from among writers who write in the national language, which in effect means they have all been Malay.

The view on culture in society can be telling in contemplating present quandaries. The overseeing government ministry for culture in Malaysia is the Ministry of Tourism, Arts, and Culture. Culture is often perceived in the framework of performative showcases to generate tourism revenue, instead of endemic pillars to cultivating contemporary society. One of the great tasks, then, for writers and translators in Malaysia is to challenge the categories we are expected to fit into but never quite do , deconstruct the deep conditioning of identity politics, and forge connections across the lines that divide our fragmented society.

The following conversation addresses exactly this challenge in compiling the September issue of Words Without Borders. Adriana: What a time to be showcasing Malaysian literature, right Pauline?

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