✍️✍️✍️ Tejanos In Texas History
The Problem Of Police Brutality And Racial Profiling historiographical trend is related to a growing interest in types of quantitative research methods and Tejanos In Texas History history. Wikimedia Commons. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Santos At the end of Spain's reign Tejanos In Texas History Texas virtually all Tejanos In Texas History living there were members of the roman catholic church, Tejanos In Texas History roman Catholicism is still the primary religion there today. Native Americans determined the fate of European explorers and settlers depending on whether Tejanos In Texas History tribe was kind or warlike. In the Tejanos In Texas History s, Tejanos In Texas History viceroy of New Spain closed the presidio in East Texas and reduced Tejanos In Texas History size of the Should School Uniform Be Compulsory at the remaining Tejanos In Texas History,  Tejanos In Texas History only Tejanos In Texas History in the entire province.
The Texas Revolution in 3 Minutes
The Paleo-Indians who lived in Texas between — BC may have links to Clovis and Folsom cultures; these nomadic people hunted mammoths and bison latifrons  using atlatls. They extracted Alibates flint from quarries in the panhandle region. Beginning during the 4th millennium BC , the population of Texas increased despite a changing climate and the extinction of giant mammals.
Many pictograms from this era, drawn on the walls of caves or on rocks, are visible in the state, including at Hueco Tanks  and Seminole Canyon. Native Americans in East Texas began to settle in villages shortly after BC, farming and building the first burial mounds. They were influenced by the Mississippian culture , which had major sites throughout the Mississippi basin. From the 8th century, the bow and arrow appeared in the region,  manufacture of pottery developed, and Native Americans increasingly depended on bison for survival. Obsidian objects found in various Texan sites attest of trade with cultures in present-day Mexico and the Rocky Mountains , as the material is not found locally.
As of the colonial period, Texas was largely divided between 6 culture groups. Along the Gulf Coast region were the Atakapa tribes. While the northernmost Puebloan groups faced a cultural collapse due to a drought, many of the southern tribes survive to the present. North of the Pueblos were the Apachean tribes who although commonly referred to as a single nation, were actually a culture group. Native Americans determined the fate of European explorers and settlers depending on whether a tribe was kind or warlike.
Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for explorers and settlers through their attacks and resistance to European conquest. Tabor Community near Overton, Texas. Cabeza de Vaca was the first European to explore the interior of Texas. Its initial settlement by Europeans occurred by accident. La Salle's colonization expedition left France on July 24, and soon lost one of its supply ships to Spanish privateers.
After the fort was constructed, one of the ships returned to France, and the other two were soon destroyed in storms, stranding the settlers. La Salle and his men searched overland for the Mississippi River, traveling as far west as the Rio Grande  and as far east as the Trinity River. That month, a third expedition launched a final attempt to find the Mississippi. The expedition experienced much infighting, and La Salle was ambushed and killed somewhere in East Texas. The Spanish learned of the French colony in late Feeling that the French colony was a threat to Spanish mines and shipping routes, King Carlos II's Council of war recommended the removal of "this thorn which has been thrust into the heart of America.
The greater the delay the greater the difficulty of attainment. The last expedition discovered a French deserter living in Southern Texas with the Coahuiltecans. The Frenchman guided the Spanish to the French fort in late April News of the destruction of the French fort "created instant optimism and quickened religious fervor" in Mexico City. The Indians regularly stole the mission cattle and horses and showed little respect to the priests. For the next 20 years, Spain again ignored Texas. After a failed attempt to convince Spanish authorities to reestablish missions in Texas, in Franciscan missionary Francisco Hidalgo approached the French governor of Louisiana for help.
This concerned Spanish authorities, who ordered the reoccupation of Texas as a buffer between New Spain and French settlements in Louisiana. Accompanying the soldiers were the first recorded female settlers in Spanish Texas. The new missions were over miles km from the nearest Spanish settlement, San Juan Bautista. The following year, the War of the Quadruple Alliance pitted Spain against France, which immediately moved to take over Spanish interests in North America. The French soldiers explained that additional soldiers were coming, and the Spanish colonists, missionaries, and remaining soldiers fled to San Antonio. The new fort became the first capital of Texas, and was guarded by six cannons and soldiers.
In the late s, the viceroy of New Spain closed the presidio in East Texas and reduced the size of the garrisons at the remaining presidios,  leaving only soldiers in the entire province. With no soldiers to protect them, the East Texas missions relocated to San Antonio. Although the missionaries had been unable to convert the Hasinai tribe of East Texas, they did become friendly with the natives. The Hasinai were bitter enemies of the Lipan Apache , who transferred their enmity to Spain and began raiding San Antonio and other Spanish areas. In , France finally relinquished their claim to Texas by ceding all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain as part of the treaty to end the Seven Years' War.
After several attempts to settle in other parts of the province, the residents returned to East Texas without authorization and founded Nacogdoches. The Comanche agreed to a peace treaty in Over the next several years the Comanche killed many of the Karankawa in the area and drove the others into Mexico. The Apaches were resoundingly defeated and the majority of the raids stopped. In , mission San Antonio de Valero was secularized, and the following year the four remaining missions at San Antonio were partially secularized. In , Spain gave Louisiana back to France in exchange for the promise of a throne in central Italy. Although the agreement was signed on October 1, , it did not go into effect until The following year, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States.
The original agreement between Spain and France had not explicitly specified the borders of Louisiana, and the descriptions in the documents were ambiguous and contradictory. Thomas Jefferson claimed that Louisiana stretched west to the Rocky Mountains and included the entire watershed of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and their tributaries, and that the southern border was the Rio Grande. Spain maintained that Louisiana extended only as far as Natchitoches, and that it did not include the Illinois Territory. During much of the dispute with the United States, governance of New Spain was in question.
In , Napoleon forced the Spanish king to abdicate the throne and appointed Joseph Bonaparte as the new monarch. Spanish troops reacted harshly, looting the province and executing any Tejanos accused of having Republican tendencies. By fewer than 2, Hispanic citizens remained in Texas. Texas became a part of the newly independent nation without any violence or physical conflict, ending the period of Spanish Texas. Spanish control of Texas was followed by Mexican control of Texas, and it can be difficult to separate the Spanish and Mexican influences on the future state.
The most obvious legacy is that of the language; every major river in modern Texas, including the Red River, which was baptized by the Spaniards as Colorado de Texas, has a Spanish or Anglicized name, as do 42 of the state's counties. Numerous towns also bear Spanish names. An additional obvious legacy is that of Roman Catholicism. At the end of Spain's reign over Texas virtually all people living there were members of the roman catholic church, and roman Catholicism is still the primary religion there today. The Spanish introduced European livestock, including cattle, horses, and mules, to Texas as early as the s.
Spanish farmers also introduced tilling and irrigation to the land, further changing the landscape. Texas eventually adopted much of the Anglo-American legal system, but some Spanish legal practices were retained, including homestead exemption , community property , and adoption. From the s to the s, the Comanche were the dominant group in the Southwest, and the domain they ruled was known as Comancheria. Confronted with Spanish, Mexican, and American outposts on their periphery in New Mexico, Texas, and Coahuila and Nueva Vizcaya in northern Mexico, the Comanche worked to increase their own safety, prosperity and power.
The Comanche used their military power to obtain supplies and labor from the Americans, Mexicans, and Indians through thievery, looting and killing, tribute, and kidnappings. There was much violence committed by and against Comanche, before and after the European settlement of Texas. Dealing with subordinate Indians, the Comanche spread their language and culture across the region. In terms of governance, the Comanche were nearly independent but allied bands with a loosely hierarchical social organization within bands.
Their empire collapsed when their camps and villages were repeatedly decimated by epidemics of smallpox and cholera in the late s, and in bloody conflict with settlers, the Texas Rangers, and the U. The population plunged from 20, to just a few thousand by the s. The Comanche were no longer able to deal with the U. Army, which took control of the region after the Mexican—American War ended in Gelo  and Curtis Marez. In , the Mexican War for Independence severed the control that Spain had exercised on its North American territories, and the new country of Mexico was formed from much of the lands that had comprised New Spain , including Spanish Texas.
The same year, Mexico enacted the General Colonization Law , which enabled all heads of household, regardless of race or immigrant status, to claim land in Mexico. The government liberalized its immigration policies, allowing for settlers from the United States to immigrate to Texas. The German settlement in Mexico goes back to the times they settled Texas when it was under Spanish rule, but the first permanent settlement of Germans was at Industry, in Austin County, established by Friedrich Ernst and Charles Fordtran in the early s, then under Mexican rule.
Ernst wrote a letter to a friend in his native Oldenburg, which was published in the newspaper there. His description of Texas was so influential in attracting German immigrants to that area that he is remembered as "the Father of German Immigration to Texas. The first empresarial grant had been made under Spanish control to Moses Austin. The grant was passed to his son Stephen F.
Starting in , and in spite of growing Mexican limitations on slavery, U. By , 69 slave owners owned slaves. Bustamante outlawed the immigration of United States citizens to Texas in These Anahuac Disturbances coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the current president. Texans took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom, resulting in the Convention of Among other issues, the convention demanded that U. After presenting their petition, courier Stephen F. Austin was jailed for the next two years in Mexico City on suspicion of treason. The vague unrest erupted into armed conflict on October 2, at the Battle of Gonzales , when Texans repelled a Mexican attempt to retake a small cannon.
The revolt was justified as necessary to protect basic rights and because Mexico had annulled the federal pact. The majority of the colonists were from the United States; they said that Mexico had invited them to move to the country, but they were determined "to enjoy" the republican institutions to which they were accustomed in their native land. Many of the Texas settlers believed the war to be over and left the army after the initial string of victories. His force was large but ill-trained. Remember Goliad! News of the defeats sparked the Runaway Scrape , where much of the population of Texas and the Texas provisional government fled east, away from the approaching Mexican army. It overturned the Mexican prohibition of slavery and outlawed the emancipation of slaves, although slaveholders were allowed to free their slaves outside the Republic if they desired.
Free Blacks were specifically forbidden to live in the Republic. Stephen F. Austin , known as the Father of Texas , died December 27, , after serving two months as Secretary of State for the new Republic. In , the capital was moved to the new town of Austin by the next president, Mirabeau B. Internal politics of the Republic were based on the conflict between two factions. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar , advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans , and the expansion of Texas to the Pacific Ocean.
Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. Although Texas governed itself, Mexico refused to recognize its independence. They soon headed back to the Rio Grande after briefly occupying San Antonio. A Texas militia retaliated at the Battle of Salado Creek. Mexico's attacks on Texas intensified the conflict between the political factions in an incident known as the Texas Archive War in Austin residents, suspicious of the president's motives because of his avowed disdain of the capital, forced the archives back to Austin at gunpoint.
The Texas Congress admonished Houston for the incident, and the incident would solidify Austin as Texas's seat of government for the Republic and the future state. On February 28, , the U. Congress narrowly passed a bill that authorized the United States to annex the Republic of Texas if it so voted. The legislation set the date for annexation for December 29 of the same year. On October 13 of the same year, a majority of voters in Texas approved a proposed constitution that specifically endorsed slavery and the slave trade. This constitution was later accepted by the U. Congress, making Texas a U. The Mexican government had long warned that annexation would mean war with the United States. When Texas joined the U. In June , President James K. On November 10, ,  Polk ordered General Taylor and his forces south to the Rio Grande, into disputed territory that Mexicans claimed as their own.
Mexico claimed the Nueces River —about miles km north of the Rio Grande —as its border with Texas. On April 25, , a 2,strong Mexican cavalry detachment attacked a man U. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol, killing 16 U. Both nations declared war. In the ensuing Mexican—American War , there were no more battles fought in Texas, but it became a major staging point for the American invasion of northern Mexico. One of the primary motivations for annexation was the Texas government's huge debts. The United States agreed to assume many of these upon annexation.
However, the former Republic never fully paid off its debt until the Compromise of Intensified migration to Texas after statehood raised the population to about , Societies such as the Texas Emigration and Land Company now pledged to settle colonists who would agree to constitute a militia for defense against the Indians; in return they would receive a grant of acres of choice land. Most of the newcomers continued to migrate from the states of the lower South; slavery was granted legal protection by the Texas constitution of The Texas population by was quite diverse, with large elements of European whites from the American South , African Americans mostly slaves brought from the east , Tejanos Hispanics with Spanish heritage , and about 20, recent German immigrants.
The new state grew rapidly as migrants poured into the fertile cotton lands of east Texas. The central area of the state was developed more by subsistence farmers who seldom owned slaves. Texas in its Wild West days attracted men who could shoot straight and possessed the zest for adventure, "for masculine renown, patriotic service, martial glory and meaningful deaths. The Germans were the largest group immigrating directly from Europe. The Czech-American communities are characterized by a strong sense of community, and social clubs were a dominant aspect of Czech-American life in Texas. By , the Czech population numbered ; by there were more than 60, Czech-Americans in Texas. In the summer of , a slave panic erupted in North and East Texas amid rumors of arson by slaves and abolitionists.
Called the "Texas Troubles", between 30 and blacks and whites were lynched by vigilantes. The events were used to arouse support for secession. As an essential part of the southern cotton industry, farmers depended on slave labor to do the massive amount of field work. The Secession Convention immediately organized a government, replacing Sam Houston when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. Texas declared its secession from the United States on February 1, , and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, With few battles in its territory, Texas was mainly a "supply state" for the Confederate forces until mid, when the Union capture of the Mississippi River made large movements of men, horses or cattle impossible.
Texas regiments fought in every major battle throughout the war. The 2nd Texas Cavalry Battalion U. Many Texan unionists supported the Confederacy after the war began, but many others also clung to their unionism throughout the war, especially in the northern counties , the German districts in Texas Hill Country , and the Mexican areas. Local officials harassed unionists and engaged in large-scale massacres against unionists and German immigrants.
In Cooke County , suspected unionists were arrested; 25 were lynched without trial and 40 more were hanged after a summary trial. Draft resistance was widespread, especially among Texans of German or Mexican descent; many of the latter went to Mexico. Potential draftees went into hiding, Confederate officials hunted them down, and many were shot. Texas's most famous unionist was state Governor at the time, Sam Houston. After refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, he was deposed as governor. During the 20th century, national historiographical trends influenced the scholarship on the Civil War in Texas. Beginning in the s, historians focused on military campaigns in Texas and other areas of the Southwest, a region previously neglected.
Since the s, scholars have shifted their attention to South Texas, exploring how its relations with Mexico and Mexican Americans affected both Confederate and Union Civil War military operations. Also since the s, the "New Social History" has stimulated research in war-related social, economic, and political changes. This historiographical trend is related to a growing interest in local and regional history.
When news of the Emancipation Proclamation arrived in Galveston on June 19, , freed slaves rejoiced, creating the celebration of Juneteenth. The State had suffered little during the war, but trade and finance had been disrupted. Angry returning veterans seized state property, and Texas went through a period of extensive violence and disorder. Most outrages took place in northern Texas; outlaws based in the Indian Territory plundered and murdered without distinction of party. Hamilton as provisional governor on June 17, Hamilton had been a prominent politician before the war.
He granted amnesty to ex-Confederates if they promised to support the Union in the future, appointing some to office. On March 30, , although Texas did not meet all the requirements, Congress restored Texas to the Union. Many free blacks were able to become businessmen and leaders. Through the young Republican Party , blacks rapidly gained political power. Like other Southern states, by the late s white Democrats regained control of the state legislature. They passed a new constitution in that segregated schools and established a poll tax to support them, but it was not originally required for voting. Within the Republican Party the Lily-white movement emerged, a movement to wrest control of the party by whites and eliminate black influence altogether.
The movement had its origins in Texas but spread across the nation. This in addition to wider efforts to restrict the influence of non-whites rapidly reversed the fortunes of the black population. Racial violence continued by whites against blacks as they enforced white supremacy. Despite this, freedmen pursued education, organized new churches and fraternal organizations, and entered politics, winning local offices. By the s, more than , blacks were voting in state elections. Hawley was elected to Congress from the state by a plurality, when most white voters split between the Democratic and Populist parties. Democrats were determined to end competition by Republicans and Populists, and reviewed what other Southern states were doing to disenfranchise blacks and poor whites.
Mississippi's new constitution of had survived a Supreme Court case, although in practice it was highly discriminatory against freedmen. Much of Texas politics of the remainder of the 19th century centered on land use. Guided by the federal Morill Act , Texas sold public lands to gain funds to invest in higher education. In , the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened, and seven years later the University of Texas at Austin began conducting classes.
New land use policies drafted during the administration of Governor John Ireland enabled individuals to accumulate land, leading to the formation of large cattle ranches. Many ranchers ran barbed wire around public lands, to protect their access to water and free grazing. This caused several range wars. The coming of the railroads in the s ended the famous cattle drives and allowed ranchers to market their cattle after a short drive, and farmers move their cotton to market cheaply. They made Dallas and other cities the centers of commercial activity. Worth became the gateway to the west, via the Fort Worth and Denver Railway.
Governor Lawrence Sullivan Ross had to personally intervene to resolve the Jaybird-Woodpecker War among factions of Democrats in Fort Bend County ; at bottom, it was a racial conflict. The majority population was black by a large margin, and had been electing county officers for 20 years. But, the white elite Democrats wanted their own people in power. Conflict became violent and the Jaybirds ordered several blacks out of town. Tensions increased and a total of seven people were killed. In the fall of , the Democratic Party created "white-only pre-primary elections," which in practice were the only competitive contests in the county, and thus disenfranchised the blacks.
Adams declared it unconstitutional  in the last of the white primary cases. Under Jim Hogg , the state turned its attention toward corporations violating the state monopoly laws. In , Texas filed a lawsuit against John D. Hogg and his attorney-general argued that the companies were engaged in rebates, price fixing , consolidation, and other tactics prohibited by the state's antitrust act. The investigation resulted in a number of indictments, including one for Rockefeller. Hogg requested that Rockefeller be extradited from New York , but the New York governor refused, as Rockefeller had not fled from Texas.
Rockefeller was never tried, but other employees of the company were found guilty. The storm created a 20 ft 6. Water covered the entire island, killing between 6, and 8, people, destroying 3, homes as well as the railroad causeway and wagon bridge that connected the island to the mainland. Galveston was the first city to implement a city commission government, and its plan was adopted by other small cities across the United States.
In the aftermath of the Galveston disaster, action proceeded on building the Houston Ship Channel to create a more protected inland port. Houston quickly grew once the Channel was completed, and rapidly became the primary port in Texas. Railroads were constructed in a radial pattern to link Houston with other major cities such as Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Austin. By , the Dallas population reached 38, as banking and insurance became major activities in the increasingly white-collar city, which was now the world's leading cotton center. It was also the world's center of harness making and leather goods.
Businessmen took control of civic affairs; with little municipal patronage, there was only a small role for the Democratic Party to play. The predominantly black Republican Party was essentially closed out of politics by the disenfranchisement in of most blacks through imposition of a poll tax see below. Determined to control politics in the state, reduce competition from Republicans and Populists, and close blacks out of politics, in the Democrat-dominated state legislature passed a poll tax as a requirement for voting. Given the economic difficulties of the times, the poll tax caused participation by African Americans, poor whites, and Mexican Americans to drop sharply, effectively disenfranchising more than one-third of the population of the state.
By the early 20th century, the Democratic Party in Texas started using a " white primary. By , the number of black voters had dropped from more than , in the s to 5, The state also passed a law for white primaries. When the Supreme Court ruled in that white primaries established by political parties were unconstitutional, in the Texas state legislature passed a bill that authorized political parties to establish their internal practices. The Democratic Party reinstated the white primary. That law survived until before another Supreme Court case ruled that it was unconstitutional. After , the NAACP and other organizations worked to register black voters and participation increased.
But the major disenfranchisement continued until passage in the mids of civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of , to provide for federal oversight in areas in which historically minorities did not vote in expected numbers based on population. Texans in marked an icon of progress with the construction of the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi. Dallas became the regional headquarters of the Federal Reserve in , strengthening its dominance of Texas banking. The city had reached , population by when the effects of the Stock Market Crash hit Texas, causing a sharp drop in the prices of oil, cotton and cattle; growth came to a standstill.
On the morning of January 10, , Anthony F. Lucas , an experienced mining engineer, drilled the first major oil well at Spindletop , a small hill south of Beaumont, Texas. The East Texas Oil Field , discovered on October 5, , is located in east central part of the state, and is the largest and most prolific oil reservoir in the contiguous United States. Other oil fields were later discovered in West Texas and under the Gulf of Mexico.
I have military honors you know it well , and receive a pension from the Government of Mexico. I will lose it all rather than go to Mexico and unite myself to the ranks of that oppressive army. Do not go to the Senate of Mexico, for you will only go to assist in quenching the dying embers of Mexican liberty; let us rather stay in Texas, and throw in our lot with our native State. Juan de los Reyes was a Mission Indian. The records fail to record from which tribe he was, but his last wife was noted to be from the Borrado tribe. Flores Family of Von Ormy. She was also from Nadadores. They came to Texas following the American Civil War in or This family came to spell its name two ways, Casillas and Casias. He was an architect and was commissioned to design the Cathedral in Guadalajara, Mexico.
He married his wife on 18 Sep in Puebla, Mexico and had several children including Domingo Casillas, born in Guadalajara. Three generations later his namesake Domingo Casillas was born in Tonala, near Guadalajara. He was married to Juana Ana de la Rosa also from Tonala. They moved north to Mission Lampasos, Coahuila. Juan was not a soldier; he was one of the very few who moved north as a businessman. Juan and Maria had a son, Carlos Casillas, who was born on the Mission in They moved to San Antonio as private citizens, again at a time where nearly all other settlers were soldiers around They originally moved into La Villita, but in when Mission Espada was secularized Carlos and his son Juan purchased homes at the Mission.Tejanos In Texas History History of the West. When Spanish Gen. Tejanos In Texas History followed in his father's Tejanos In Texas History, serving in the Mexican army Tejanos In Texas History his youth, then moving with his new wife, Tomasita, to his father's family ranch Tejanos In Texas History Carlos Johns reflective cycle on the San Antonio River. There was no official Tejanos In Texas History by the United States government Tejanos In Texas History the revolution. Many Texan unionists supported the Confederacy after Tejanos In Texas History war began, but many others also clung to their unionism throughout Tejanos In Texas History war, especially in the northern countiesthe German Tejanos In Texas History in Texas Hill Countryand the Mexican areas.