① Iron Jawed Angels Essay

Sunday, January 02, 2022 10:42:44 PM

Iron Jawed Angels Essay



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Iron Jawed Angels

The radical concept of bioprinting was expounded where the students were introduced to bioinks and to the scaffold that would ultimately make up the printed organ. It was a very enlightening and enriching session. The present Student Council took their oaths on this day. The celebration included a video of students of different grades sharing their vision for India. It was a brief meeting wherein parents and teachers were introduced to each other. These meetings are key to providing valuable feedback and first impressions of a child. Parents expressed appreciation of the efforts made by the School to conduct the year as close to the normal as is possible. The videos shown and the activities conducted helped clarify the concept further. The legalities were well demonstrated.

Children learned how counterfeiters alter a brand trademark to sell fake goods. The children were made aware of how, as consumers, we can use our knowledge to spot and boycott fake products. The resource person also shared some interesting trivia about copyrights and brands. The audience were given tips on how to safely use items protected by IPR. They began with a skillfully made video enacted by the students of the class. They also analysed the topic through detailed case studies of two celebrities - one who succumbed and one who overcame the urge. The expert opinions of a psychologist, a spokesperson from the Samaritans and our very own inhouse counsellors : Ms Rajgariha and Ms Uppal, ensured that cloudy zones were clarified.

The audience was given tips on how to look for signs of suicidal tendencies in their friends and how to listen to those who show the signs. The presentation highlighted the efforts of athletes including the Refugee teams and the Russian Olympic Committee team, to not only train, but also make the effort to participate. There were also many new sporting events like skateboarding and karate kata which took place for the first time. They brought up the stigma of doping in international sports. It was heartwarming to see the positives brought up in the presentation. They also questioned why India has not bettered the medal tally in the Olympics. The debate moved onto genetic discrimination in sports which took a very interesting turn Topic: The Big Indian Scams Date : August 12, Grade: 10C Description : Grade 10C highlighted a very real danger of the virtual world - online scams.

They introduced us to phishing and how to identify mail which is fraudulent. Contact tracing scams were also discussed. The very interesting point made was the psychological makeup of the scammers and what drove them to do it. An enlightening video from the BBC showed us how these scams are conducted. The students enacted a skit that showcased the trial Nirav Modi went through.

A prominent lawyer was interviewed. He spoke about how fast track verdicts and recovery of the money seems to be a pipe dream in our judicial system. The students ended the presentation with a great song encapsulating their experience of being scammed. Topic: Collaboration versus Competition Date : August 12, Grade: 5A Description : "The focus of the presentation was to bring out the meaning, merits and demerits of competition and collaboration.

The children presented their ideas through different online tools, a talk show and skit. Relevant reflective questions were asked and a poll conducted to get a pulse of the audience. The children were enthusiastic and actively involved at every stage - asking open ended questions. Through the process, besides gaining an understanding of the topic, the children grew in confidence and learnt to work better as a team. The students conducted various case studies of vicious serial killers and the psychological and sociological factors that caused them to commit the crimes that they did.

Then, the students touched on the nature vs nurture debate looking specifically at crime. Finally they had a discussion on the aforementioned topics. The session concluded with a lively question-and-answer segment with the audience. They were given a minute each to speak on an object of their choice. Such activity builds confidence, language fluency and peer sharing in this age group. Ms Mohta conducted a very enlightening session on how the students can create one and what tips they could use to do so.

It also provided Information on the admission process of the University. Students actively participated in the session and were given ample opportunities to clarify their doubts and speak out their minds. Another aim was to make students collaborators and stakeholders in their own learning. They also discussed ways in which they can integrate active learning in the classroom.

The goal of the workshops was to create an enthusiasm to learn independently because when a child is involved in the learning process, he remembers longer and more effectively. Ms Prabhakar addressed various questions from the audience related to the anxiety caused due to the uncertain times. The tips she gave: 1. Awareness and acceptance of your anxiety will help in choosing helpful coping mechanisms. Maintaining a routine, quality time with family, eating healthy, exercise and limited exposure to the news on TV are ways to decrease anxiety. Be honest with children. Tell them the facts in age appropriate language, involve them in household activity and play with them. They need to be mentally stimulated and physically engaged to tide through the pandemic.

Art is a good medium to relate to quiet children. Our Senior Academic Co-ordinator, Ms Thomas, took it forward by giving those present an insight into Alumni placements and Community service. Ms Motha, the Career Counsellor, provided an overview of the admissions system post Grade The queries regarding the Board Exams were handled by the Principal. The newest arrivals of the Junior KG were given a palm print activity to do on their first day of online school. After they were settled in, a Pajama Party was organised to teach them bedtime rules. Their days since have been filled with learning through the Play-Way method and with lots of fun activities. The session concluded with the Principal addressing queries of the parents.

The opening and closing ceremonies were live-streamed on YouTube. Indeed, they are now well on their way to becoming effective agents of change and to take their place as leaders of the future! Thereafter, Mrs Thomas spoke of the commendable Community Service that our Scottishites are engaged in. The Career Counsellor, Ms. Motha briefed the students about the academic courses, various universities, career prospects and admission formalities available to them to plan their future options upon the completion of Grade Ovichegan introduced the Faculty, and briefed the students about the functioning of the ISC Section with regard to how the classes are conducted, and the various non-scholastic activities that the students are expected to participate in.

The Code of Conduct to be adhered to was explained, and the academic expectations from the students with regard to their project and assignment submissions and a special emphasis on their preparation for and performance in all the assessments and examinations was also discussed. The second part of the program was an ice-breaker session exclusively for the students with the Faculty members. The students spent about forty-five minutes doing two activities interacting with each other and getting to know the faculty members in a fun-filled environment. The Orientation was conducted by means of a PowerPoint presentation.

The Principal welcomed the parents and the students and briefly defined the academic calendar for the coming year. The teachers shared the classroom schedules and activities for the coming academic year. The topics were explained and demonstrated using the demo Google classrooms. It discussed the problems faced by adults and children alike. It spoke of how to process grief, how to cope with feelings of anxiety and the mechanisms that can be used to handle the above.

They examined ideology, demographics and the role played by industrialisation in this play of power. They used tools like a Powerpoint presentation, Polling and a Skit to illustrate their extensive research. They started out with appearances but diversified into image building, stereotypes and even people with disabilities. Topic : Scientific Conspiracy Theories and Mysteries of the Earth-Mystarea 51 Date : July 5, Grade: 12B Description : "Topics relating to unsettling tales, with no fixed explanation, from the Eye of the Sahara to The Ten-Dimensional Theory, Cave of the Sibyl, Green Children of Woolpit and The Gateway to Hell, were covered through interactive sessions with the audience, namely; gaming, story telling, interviews, creative enactments and live polls.

The matter of whether ethnicities the world over feel a difference in the way they look at themselves, after being victims of racism was proposed. Racism and discrimination against certain minorities was intensely discussed. The students of Grade 6D created an animated video that explained how a vaccine works in our body. A case study of Dr. Hossein Sadrzadeh and the statistical data of the vaccination drive in India was presented. They scrutinized the regulating factors of our world - education, politics along with science and technology. An informative presentation incorporating wholesome statistical data and videos was prepared by the students. It gave the students an opportunity to express their ideas as well their differences with respect to real time versus online learning.

The audience was urged to ponder on the country's attempts to emerge from the socio-economic crisis of the pandemic. Relevant reflective questions were asked and a poll was conducted by students to get a pulse of the audience. The children interviewed a psychologist and a blogger all in an attempt to understand the pros and cons of taking selfies and posting them on social media. This was done through presentations, where the children expressed their ideas for and against the same. The session was interactive with many questions put forward to the audience. The children concluded that it was good to learn many different skills but it's important to be good at a single skill.

The need for global peace and harmony was highlighted. The students highlighted the intricacies and the ethical viewpoints involved in Human Cloning. The students explained the concept of good time management, it's importance and impact of procrastination by using creative analogies, an interview with a professional and various other activities. This was followed by a video of students role playing a televised debate on whether free speech should be absolute in India Date The laws enacted by the government to protect wildlife were mentioned in the presentation.

The students highlighted the importance of the Marathi language through poems, songs and role play. Dr Mrs Parekh who is the Asst. Professor for Orthopedics at the University of Miami shared valuable inputs from her days at Scottish. The students took charge of the virtual classrooms and presented the best teaching-learning practices adopted by the School in the year with the help of power point presentations, e-posters, engaging activities, and collaborative sessions for parents using breakout rooms. The logistics for the event was planned efficiently to ensure that every student could articulate and present their learning to the parents.

Student queries were addressed. The girls interacted and discussed their problems without any hesitation and tried to find answers to their queries. Principal Mrs. George, Senior Academic Coordinator, Mrs. Thomas and the co-ordinators of the various sections hoisted the Indian tricolour in the School, followed by the National Anthem. After a solemn prayer by the Senior Academic Co-ordinator, Mrs. Thomas, the uplifting hymn, 'O God Our Help In Ages Past', was sung and it brought out the truer meaning and essence of the day like never before. The Principal's allegorical address to the School of the recently played 'Border-Gavaskar Trophy' match where India stood strong while diligently focusing and optimally using resources was a much needed reminder of the influence an Indian can have globally.

The students of Grades 9 and 11 then put together a tribute to the farmers through a very informative presentation on the condition of farmers and how various changes through the years have impacted them. The panel discussion enhanced the topic while throwing light on the difficulties faced by the farmers on a day-to-day basis. It further inculcated a sense of gratitude towards these warriors as a blessing to the entire nation. The presentation ended with a poignant poem on the plight of our farmers. The event was indeed one that not only prompted us of the significance of the Indian Constitution but also filled us with nostalgia, insight and vigour of a quintessential Republic Day celebration.

It was held on Friday, 18th December from a. The participants were from Grades 6 to The preparations started about ten days prior and different committees were set up for different events. The Public Relations Team comprising the students created a lot of awareness and excitement by preparing e-posters and pamphlets informing everybody about the upcoming fest, and contact details of the different club heads were shared. Thereafter, discussions commenced, different WhatsApp groups were made and the selection process started. After the selection process was completed, students were assigned the tasks and were asked to prepare for the events accordingly.

All the Scottishites were very excited and the participation was overwhelming. Despite the inhibitions that we had about pulling off such a grand event online, we were amazed as to how smoothly the event was carried out without any glitches. All thanks to the amazing efforts of all the staff, students, and the unwavering support of the Administrative Heads of the School and last, but not the least, our dear parents who are more than willing to do their best for the upliftment and betterment of this great institution. The Scottish Spotlight was our closing event for the year and it just left all of us feeling grateful and privileged for everything that we have. Integrated Virtual Collaborative Project Objective: Encourage Interdisciplinary approach to learning Promote Critical Thinking, Conflict Resolution, Creativity and Communication Promote general awareness, research and independent learning As a part of the project the middle school students were taken to a virtual tour designed by the school team with the help of various Google apps for education.

They explored the various aspects of the land, the flora, fauna, the physical features, climatic condition, the history and culture. Various technology features like breakup rooms, Google earth, Google survey forms and Google docs were used for an effective virtual experience, collaboration and discussion. Academic concepts learned in various subjects including language, science, social science and math were covered through these comprehensive and integrated projects.

Through Google Earth, they visited important landmarks of Japan like Mt. Fuji, the Golden Pavilion etc. They learnt about the flaura, fauna, culture, history, physical features, climatic conditions Japanese method of multiplication and the application of mathematical concepts in baking Matcha Tea Cookies. They were treated to some sumptuous sushi, the famous tea making ceremony and the Japanese school lunch routine through videos. In the break out rooms, each group had to research, draw parallels and suggest methods of solving some real world problems. They worked in groups to present their findings. It gave them a detailed introduction to life in the windiest continent.

The highlight was the virtual treasure hunt of the wonders of Antarctica which was thoroughly enjoyed by the students in the breakout rooms. The students explored the study of plant life and use of greenhouses to grow vegetation. The students engaged themselves in a hands-on activity and created a terrarium of their own. The students collaborated to present a skit on harmful effects of Global warming on Antarctica and the need to save it.

The students created their own terrarium. ISC results and data on placement of our students after completing ISC was also shared with the parents. This session emphasized the importance of right questioning technique to ensure facilitation in the classroom. The difference between activity based learning and enquiry based learning was also highlighted. Group discussions in the breakout rooms helped participants in designing EBL lesson plans that can be implemented in our classrooms. The virtual screening of a short film was followed by an interactive activity.

During the webinar officers from Surface Warfare, Pilot, Submarine, Marine Commando and various other branches of the Indian Navy shared their experiences and interacted with the students. Each parent was given an appointment time with the class teacher, which was strictly adhered to. This Math Wizard had four rounds that focused on speed, accuracy and the application of various mathematical concepts. On 10th November the KG Section celebrated the traditional day to bring in the festive spirit and mark the end of term.

The primary focus of this session was to bring out the meaning of these two contradicting proverbs and how each one stands true depending on the situation. Relevance and tips on time management were also discussed. Date: 27th November Grade : 11A Topic : Pending Justice This presentation provided detailed information along with statistics and graphs on various pending cases in various courts and the reasons for the delay in justice.

He patiently answered audience questions related to this topic. The primary focus of this session was to bring awareness about how easy access to information and technology is influencing our everyday lives by restricting intellectual growth and creativity. It included discussion on plagiarism and copyright laws. The use of algorithms to keep users hooked on to social media platforms flitting from one app to another was highlighted. Tips to ensure healthy social media balance was shared. Student Enrichment Programme: A number of informative online sessions were organized for the students of Grades 9 to University representatives shared the admission procedures, academic offerings, opportunities and available career supports available to students.

Emerging careers in the rapidly changing world and preparation for the careers of the future were also discussed. The session provided an insight on how applications are reviewed by admission officers, introduction to the US higher education system, types of scholarships and how students can reduce the cost of their Bachelor's Degree in the US. This was followed by a question and answer session. Name of the Event: U. George and the University Guidance Counsellor, Mrs. Mohta, given the current situation during the pandemic, requiring everyone to adapt and grow around its safe isolation. The focus was on making certain that the students were coping with the drastic changes in the environment and the effective management of time during the lockdown.

The forthcoming examinations were also highlighted and students were advised to devote their time towards serious exam preparation. In addition, detailed comparisons on how these Boards prepare students for competitive entrance exams and programmes at the Undergraduate level was put across on the basis of the scheme of studies, syllabus and curriculum. The interaction ended with a question and answer session. The students were addressed on the topic, 'To leverage your sports skills to study in your dream college abroad.

He shared his thoughts and experiences as an advocate and all queries of the students were answered which made it a very fruitful session. All participants of the four Houses competed with fervour and zest while showcasing their brilliance. Their youthful vigour and omnipresent knowledge was evident throughout. It was a very informative and enriching competition for the participants as well as the audience. KG -Grade 12 Description: In keeping with the 'Hindi Diwas' celebrations, the School Assembly turned into a virtual collage of information, song and poetry which emphasized the historical and cultural significance of the Hindi Language.

The sessions were incredibly interactive and not only kept the students engaged but also helped the students explore core skills like critical thinking, creativity, collaboration, communication and problem-solving. In a nutshell, the importance of setting achievable, realistic, time bound goals and its demonstration through simple effective exercises on how goals improve performance were highlighted through these sessions.

An interview of Mrs. Each parent was given an appointed time with the class teacher, which was strictly adhered to. To ensure efficient use of time and constructive feedback, the class teachers had prepared an anecdotal record of every student with the help of the inputs from subject teachers. The planning and the seamless execution of the virtual PTM was appreciated by the parents.

V Bhuta Highlights: This session dealt with handling theories of inclusion, participation, disability and identifying vulnerabilities i. The role of educators in inclusive systems and providing better-quality education for all the children that is instrumental in changing the discriminatory attitudes were other areas that were highlighted. S Panicker Highlights: The workshop was facilitated by Ms. Sadhvi and Ms. Bakul Dua. The focus lay primarily on understanding 'trauma' and its effects on children and adults. Different behavioural changes that children may exhibit after undergoing a traumatic experience, early recognition and understanding of these patterns, techniques of implementation while interacting with traumatized children, 'never shame the child - it's not his or her fault and the sandwich technique of feedback were of some of the points that were elaborated.

Chetna Duggal and Project Coordinator Ms. Lamia Bagasrawala put across different strategies for building resilience in order to outlive the problem of the COVID pandemic. Methods of strengthening core life skills, developing personal relationships and learning how to develop accountable discipline, good behavior and support were some of the thoughts shared. In addition, a discussion on how the School has been impacted as an ecosystem and various challenges faced by students was pursued. Douglas Butler Attended by: Ms.

M Hill,Ms. B Nadar, Ms. B Rajakrishnan,Mr. A Kanade Highlights: The workshop was an overview of Autograph 5, a software program that included a tour of the page types, standard and advanced levels, onscreen keyboard, and menu and toolbar settings. It featured different areas of mathematics and aimed at covering several topics such as Number, Shape, Algebra and Data. A Uppal, Ms. M Wakeman, Ms. A Rajgarhi Highlights: The curriculum was geared at building mental health awareness among children from Grades 1 to The modules were well crafted, exhaustive and covered sensitive and significant topics like bullying, gender stereotypes, fostering empathy, dealing with self-harm or suicidal thoughts.

The two interviews with Ms. Peerzada, the ISC Psychology teacher and Psychologist, Ms Husna Vanjara, a parent and ex-scottishite, stressed on the need of positive affirmations, the benefit of prayer, talking to people who care, taking charge of your health and most importantly mental health being closely related to physical health during this time. The class also addressed online bullying that is rampant with teachers and students in the digital space. The roles played by Biology and upbringing in the determination of gender and how individuals perceive themselves were clearly stated. An eye-opening survey was conducted among Grade 9 students and their families that provided a check on the sensitivity and reaction of people towards this community.

The debate that sparked revealed the maturity with which students look forward to accepting people who are different and want a change in society. Description: Grade 7A presented an age appropriate topic 'I am Enough' in order to sensitise the students to bullying, ill effects of body shaming, colour based discrimination and its negative impact on the emotional and mental well-being of every individual. The floor was then left open for a discussion aimed at destigmatisation. The humanitarian perspective of the community reaching out to the affected and the underprivileged was well garnered. A question and answer round brought the session to a well-deserved closure. This highly informative and interactive session was commendably planned and managed by the students.

Date: 23rd September Grade: Grade 9C Topic: Normalising Abortion in India Description: Grade 9C handled the topic with utmost sensitivity while building the required awareness on the methods of abortion and adding a religious view along with what the law states. Dimple Chudgar addressed the ethical issue seen from a medical perspective through a very informative question and answer session. Additionally, the emotional well-being of women who have aborted their foetuses and female foeticide was discussed. The interaction highlighted the impact on women all over the country as victims of social cruelty and ignorance. The online session was backed by a prior survey on students' usage of social media and their take on the entertainment industry.

The pros and cons of various fields of entertainment such as Gaming, Live Streaming, Bollywood and Social Media were portrayed. Date: 16th September Grade: Grade 9A Topic: How countries use propaganda to influence their citizens Description: Grade 9A presented the topic using the examples of North Korea, the USA and India, pertinent to how the media is used to filter information and exert government control over public opinion. Around delegates from Grades 8 to 12 from 37 schools in India and abroad engaged in constructive debate across 8 committees. Another first was the 'Night Crisis Cabinet' that was conducted.

The Conference thus provided an enthralling and enriching experience for first timers as well as experienced delegates. KG - Grade 12 Description: At the 74th Independence Day celebration, the entire School was knitted together into a heartwarming virtual celebration. The nostalgia was heightened with the YouTube live streaming of the flag-hoisting on the school campus by the Principal, Mrs. George, which was followed by a solemn prayer service led by Mrs.

S Thomas [Senior Academic Coordinator]. The Principal then addressed the students on the significance of inculcating high integrity and not succumbing to temptation. A poignant audio-visual recital of the poem 'Where the Mind is without Fear' was performed by the students of Grade Nester Dabre on the saxophone. Date: 18th June Workshop: Help students to get better grades in English Conducted by: Dr Elaine Higgleton, International Publisher for Collins Learning UK Attended by: English Teachers of Grades 6 to 9 Highlights: The session laid emphasis on how students can work on achieving better grades based on the recognition of their individual learning strategy and improvising it.

Talk shows, role play and debates were used to discuss the impact of demonetization, introduction of GST, job-creation, Chinese domination of the world economy, effectiveness of 'Make in India', the monopoly of giant players, strategies that can promote small enterprise, impact of the pandemic. Is printing currency a good way to finance deficit? India readiness to boycott Chinese goods.

George, was the purpose and methodology of the conduction of the sessions of Perspective 0. They exchanged conventional delicacies with each other which they carried in their snack boxes. Group stage performances such as Dramebaaz and Soft-Sell were held. The topics for these events were designated on the spot and the students were given a stipulated time frame to work and deliver a unique stage performance. Several other interesting stage performances such as Word-up Human Scrabble , Showbiz and Step In were conducted, where the children presented their talent with great joy and enthusiasm.

Individual creative activities were also conducted in the classrooms, where every child was encouraged to unlock their hidden potential. The students enjoyed creating new and innovative articles. They also participated in two activities based on their interest from the given 25 activities. The best were awarded certificates and all took home with them sweet memories. Parents were permitted to watch the performances of their wards. He ably took the salute and encouraged the participating athletes in his address to the gathering. The March Past was a well-co-ordinated proceeding with all the Houses marching to the tunes played by the School Band. The students of Grade 6 put up an exciting display of zumba moves with pom-poms. The overall Champions Girls was the Catherine House.

Topic: Grandparents Day Grandparents' day saw a large number and a motley crowd of some young and some older grandparents trooping into their grandchild's class for a visit. The students sang a song and gifted cards to felicitate their beloved grandparents. Many wrote messages for their grandchildren which were read out later in class by their teachers. Topic: KG. Disbelief and delight was written large on the faces of the little ones as they sang and danced with incessant enthusiasm to celebrate the blessed festival. The Annual Concert this year was divided into 3 shows. The audience witnessed a variety of traditional and folk art forms both Indian and Western, like Kalaripaittu, a martial art form of Kerala and some original compositions like the Choral Recitation on the history of Bombay Scottish School.

A team of teachers and students conceptualised, researched and scripted the performances. The Concert sent out a message on the effects of climate change and urged the audience to take relevant steps to prevent global warming. Members of the Committee of Management graced the Concert. This was followed by games and dance. A sumptuous dinner awaited them thereafter. The students were taken down memory lane through a video portraying the last two years they had spent together.

The students were handed over their mementos and report cards at the end of the function. The teachers bid them farewell with blessings and best wishes. Parents were also informed about the School working in shifts on account of the restoration work of the School building to be undertaken shortly. Concerns raised by the parents regarding the issues were addressed by the Principal. The subject teacher experts gave the parents a complete perspective of the syllabus, curriculum, and the future career options available to the students.

Sports The much awaited event, the KG Sports saw a myriad of races interlaced with fun activities. It was held on the School grounds. Children ran with enthusiasm to try and win the coveted medals. All of them were winners as they ran with sportsmanship spirit and were awarded a cap with the School logo. The event commenced with the March Past by Grade 5 students. After a solemn Lamp lighting ceremony and prayer service.

The valedictorians of the batch Aditya Choudhary and Sanjana Runwal shared their thoughts with the audience. The students were dressed in their ethnic best and danced their hearts away. The evening ended with the receipt of their mementos while enjoying the South Indian delicacies organised for them. It was also the 25th anniversary of the Batch of who showed up in large numbers. They actively interacted with the students who prepared models and brain teasers which centred around topics taught in class. Parents were also entertained with engaging skits in Hindi or English which filled their hearts with joy.

The students enjoyed decorating their classrooms and putting their best foot forward to enthral their parents. This momentous occasion was celebrated with a special prayer service led by Rev Susheel Sumitra. We welcomed in our midst Ms Nim Gholkar, batch of who is now an author and renowned motivational speaker and Success Coach based in Sydney, Australia. Ms Nim Gholkar spoke fondly of her years at Scottish and gave the students many valuable tips to take them through life. Her love for stories was born during her years at School, where she enjoyed writing essays and short stories. She firmly believes that the habits of discipline and attention to detail, which she learned at Bombay Scottish School all those years ago have truly helped her in her journey as an author and motivational speaker.

The day continued with fun-filled matches in football, basketball and throwball between ex-students and present students. The highlight of the morning was the breath-taking performances of the Houses at the Inter-House Dance Competition Nritya. The day ended on a good note, with the Alumni presenting gifts to the Staff. Each of the Houses were given unique props which they made the hero of their dance. The Green House emerged victorious. They put across the findings of the survey they conducted of gauging their fellow peers' choice of TV shows. The growing popularity of alternate distribution channels for video streaming such as Amazon Prime and Netflix was also highlighted. They depicted an action packed day portraying the sacrifices made by the police on a daily basis to provide us with the necessary security.

The survey conducted and the interviews taken from the police personnel, ranging from the lowest rank to the DIG level, provided information on the requirements for joining the police force, their living conditions, duties etc. A Power Point Presentation with very apt images highlighted the different emotions and brought out the joys, concerns and the responsibilities placed on the shoulders of young teenagers. The Principal addressed the students on the importance of self-worth and ways to build positive self-image.

The students were trained to differentiate between the humane and addictive designer features of popular apps used and various ways to deal with media addiction was also discussed. It aimed at understanding the usage of the mobile phone and other gadgets by people among different age groups and the impact it has on an individual's personal and family life. A video documentary prepared by the students provided glimpses of the initiatives that students could undertake to make our planet a better place. The Principal further reinforced the concept of discussing Stephen Coney's time management matrix. They were briefed on the seven steps of CPR via various video clippings.

The workshop created awareness about the various aspects of cyber security like creating a digital footprint, how to create a strong password and how to avoid cyber bullying. Various changes that teenagers undergo during adolescence was addressed and an interactive question-answer session was also conducted. The objective was to make the students aware that the beliefs they carry, are like a pair of glasses.

Clear glasses help you see the world around as it is; but foggy glasses create distorted and sometimes completely warped images. The workshop was interactive and activity based. The students were addressed on emphasising the need to reuse and recycle. The focus was to recycle paper. Our students were made to realise that even a small project like this creates a huge impact and will also be a contributing factor to save our environment. They studied various Avengers like Hulk, Ironman and Thor and were even shown the different suits worn by these agents and the qualities displayed by them. They were given hands on training through various simulated games.

During the session, morals like team work and victory of good over evil were emphasised. The visit culminated with a game and students becoming agents themselves. Pupils participated along with the village children in a 3km Marathon to create awareness about the need for clean drinking water. Students had a unique Village Immersion escapade through a first-hand experience of rural life. The students were treated to a typical village lunch post where they did a Scavenger Hunt which gave them ample opportunities to interact with the villagers.

Stationery items were distributed. Shahpur Block The students visited the manufacturing unit and were acquainted with the process of the manufacturing of ayurvedic medicines. They also understood the 4P's of marketing applicable to the unit and the challenges faced by the ayurvedic pharmaceutical unit in order to survive the competitive market. The hands-on-experience of making their own rain water harvesting model and eco city models, filtration tanks and feeding domesticated animals helped them to understand its importance. They appreciated how the 20 acres of land was developed and maintained with zero waste. It is an example that metropolitan cities need to follow for a better future with sustainability as the key. The camp developed a feeling of oneness while giving them the opportunity to understand the importance of empathy.

Through adventure activities, team games and an enthralling nature walk along the riverside gave the Guides a deeper knowledge of the essence of guiding. The Guides participated in the campfire that was organised and also enacted skits. The interaction between the blind at NAB and our students left the latter in an emotional state. They were able to empathize and understand the life and living conditions of the elderly people struggling to cope with aging problems. The Chikki Factory and Bailey Factory visit enlightened the students into the making of an edible and non-edible product. Forganic farms showcased the various ways of organic growing of plants and trees, in turn highlighting the distinction in the growth of different plants and trees.

The visit to Gram Sanskruti Udyan Village Park, a mock village of Maharashtra gave them an insight into the typical village life of Maharashtra. The Aga Khan Palace provided valuable information about Gandhiji's life and his contribution to India's freedom struggle. Hindi skits based on the life of Mahatma Gandhi were enacted by students. They visited the village School and entertained the students with a song, koli dance, skit and choral recitation.

During their visit to the Parle G factory, they were informed about the variety of Parle products, the making of biscuits and distribution of their favourite Parle G biscuits and other products through an audio-visual. They were treated to freshly baked biscuits at the end of their visit. The visit to the Durshet Forest Reserve kept the students engaged as they eagerly observed the vegetation during a nature trail and also indulged in adventure activities like the rope bridge and archery.

They enjoyed doing the projects and the learning process took place in a different set up away from School. Each zone was assigned a task and objectives to follow like soilless cultivation, hibiscus and onion plantation, scare-crow making and poster making. The students were given opportunities to earn credits bit coins which they later traded for vegetables at the farm during these activities. They further learnt about organic farming and vermicomposting, recycling paper and handmade paper, making tiaras from flowers and terrariums. The students also visited a cow shed and a biogas plant. They learnt life values, social skills and team work.

They visited an aquarium and a dinosaur park. The students learnt about species of fish and the different types of dinosaurs. They enjoyed themselves on numerous rides, roller coasters, dashing cars, swing boats and the Ferris Wheel. Each group was given a list of clues and letter cards. According to the clues given they had to form ten words. It was a challenging activity and children enjoyed doing it.

Instead of cooking it, they painted it and let it dry for 2 days. The result was colourful pasta which was then strung together to make a necklace to carry home. KG children were shown an audio visual on how to save water, its uses and how to use it wisely, not only at school but also at home. The children also learnt a poem called Save water! KG The children palm printed to create the bright green trees of our rainforest and coloured the animals and creatures which brought the rainforest to life. Seeing live monsoon creatures was cherry on the cake.

Another fun filled day for the students started off with a visit to the rainforest followed by a power point presentation and an audio visual. The children were thrilled to see the beautiful colours of the birds, animals and the trees found in the rainforest. The scarlet macaw and the red eyed frog got them fascinated. KG Topic: Introduction of letter R R words were used in the script to introduce letter R to the children in a creative way. Rudolph the Red Nose Reindeer enthralled the children with his adventures on a holiday through a puppet show story.

KG Winter season The week started with Frosty the Snowman introducing the winter season in each class. Clues were given by Frosty and the children had to crack the clues to play the quiz, thereby learning the various winter sports,festivals,food and clothes. KG Winter season The children were absolutely enthralled to see the winter animals come alive through the Puppet show - One winters day, wherein the animals taught the children, values of kindness and compassion, and their behaviour in winter, through migration, adaption and hibernation.

KG Winter season Our budding storytellers were encouraged to read the sight words through the game read and feed the bear. But our bear could swallow only those words which the children could read on their own. One could not help but notice the happiness on the children's faces as they read and fed the hungry bear. The week culminated as our little math wizards walked the penguin walk and huddled together in a sequence of in the given time.

Their squeals of laughter, while playing the game, could be heard outside the classroom. The students had fun making their own sandwiches and eating them. The students understood the importance of assembling a healthy meal and eating it too. Donning caps and with a jaunty step they carefully followed traffic rules to cross the road. Students played hopscotch, saw the various summer plants growing in the park and coloured a worksheet on what they saw at the park. The students had to design a travel brochure for these states and include details like important landmarks, food, culture and special tourist attraction. They were advised to carry the message of a silent peaceful Diwali and reduce noise and smoke pollution. An audio visual on safety measures to be adopted was shown.

Dancing on folk songs. A simulation game of train travel was played. The puppet show had them enthralled and they went back to class happily to write the number on their slates. Thereafter, the children had a healthy discussion in class on safety rules in school, at home and while visiting a mall. Emergency contact person - A story on Importance of knowing one's emergency contact person and phone number drove the point home with the children. And came up with solutions on how to save themselves Body safety PPT was shown to the children which reinforced the concept of protection oneself and having a network of trusted adults to confide in.

A worksheet on - Who do I tell? KG Cultural awareness Ganesh festival. Children discussed the joys of celebrating a festival. They also displayed awareness of having eco friendly idols and controlling noise pollution and not polluting the sea in the classroom discussion. The joy on the childrens faces and their laughter filled the Gamaliel Hall, as they moved their shoulders and danced as the puppet was being strung along in the puppet theatre.

The children were also given an opportunity to hold and get a feel of moving the katputlis. Using their UNO cards they answered them. Students learn best by being involved in the learning process. Keeping this in mind, students constructed their own unique geometrical figure to find the relationship between pairs of angles using toothpicks. Milk and cream, 2. Pure water from salt water, 3. Grain and husk 4. Broken particles of grains from flour and 5. Sand and water. This will surely enable students apply this knowledge to various mixtures seen in daily life. This set them thinking on the benefits of proper town planning. Causes of pollution of water bodies in Mumbai and preventive measures were highlighted to make the children responsible for the wellbeing of the city.

Every day, the students record a good deed done on chits of paper and at the end of two weeks come together as a class and put it up on their class board in the form of a tree. Students thus learn the impact of good deeds on themselves and those around them. Their usefulness or the harm caused by them was illustrated by the groups in the form of a poster. They were sensitized about the harmful effects of firecrackers. The student learns to represent electrovalent compounds in a fun and interesting manner. The School which is truly their pride, was introduced to them with help of Sam and Mother Puppets. The children learnt about the History of their School, location, School flag and motto, School magazine and the Principal.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. The children learnt about the significance of 5th September celebrated as Teacher's Day in India. A Teacher, takes a hand and touches a Heart. Don't we all agree? KG My School The children got reintroduced to their school as they took a walk with their teachers. The children got a peek into the exciting world of experiments as they visited the School Laboratories, they said hello to the North block, South block as well as their own play castle the Heritage block, the iconic Banyan tree looked down upon them as they tip toed around it, The Mackay, Andrew and the Gamaliel Halls held their head high as the kindergarteners passed them, the children learnt about the Principal's office, the 4 gates which provide them with safety and security and finally ended their walk with the fascinating world of books, The Bombay Scottish Library.

The excitement on the children's faces was noteworthy. Students learnt to collaborate as a group online and also developed a deeper understanding of the disorders of the heart. They then wrote the properties of each shape including the number of sides and vertices. They did this to further their understanding of the lesson, ' The Capturing of the Iron Man'.

This was followed by the Hindi Elocution Competition for Grades 1 to 5. They, then, went on to create their own creative version of the National Anthem in lines and presented the same to their class. Students revisited concepts on Health and Hygiene. They, then,went on to solve a colouful worksheet on the same. It was heartening to watch students move from home group to expert group to learn and teach each other. In class, they collated this information to create a colourful and informative chart. They compared the different examples and their characteristics.

The jigsaw method was used and the students worked as a team to learn the components of the ecosystem. The students are also sensitized to the need for conservation. They were also provided an insight into waste management and the steps taken to minimize pollution. The visit concluded by the students tasting the freshly baked cookies. The group then put the words together to make a sentence.

Grade 1 Card for Grandparents Children made a lovely card and wrote a message for their grandparents. Grade 2 Young Authors Children were given 6 sentences of a story. They arranged them in the correct sequence,gave an appropriate title and end to the story. KG A celebrating the Red day. Students came dressed in Red colour T-shirts and were super excited to see their class done up with Red colour all around. As part of the gallery walk, they welcomed the other classes with a lot of enthusiasm and taught them a Red colour song. Dressed up in bright yellow dress the children enjoyed various display of yellow objects around the classroom. They enjoyed their sumptuous yellow meal like dhokla , boiled corn, yellow puri , poha and showcased the yellow tiffin box to the other classes too.

Jr KG-C displayed the green colour theme by wearing green tops and the classroom was decorated with green items on the board and mobile hangings. This was followed by a Hoolahoop game whereby children enjoyed jumping through them with music. They went into the Blue class and saw a display of many Blue articles. They could hold back themselves and were overwhelmed to meet with the visitors from Blue Land "Baby Blue and Bubble Blue" The students left after making a promise to do all they can to to save their precious Blue Planet -Earth.

The class was decorated with dupattas of the same colours and objects as well. A dance session with the colour song had all grooving to the music. The children were taught to identify the gates for evacuation. They walked in an orderly manner and lined up in their allocated safe zone. Children were taught the correct way to cross the road and to follow the safety and signal rules. They enthusiastically recited the road safety poem while dramatizing the zebra crossing in the road scene created by the teachers in the activity room.

The road safety Power Point Presentation shown to the children cemented the safety rules in the little ones to last for a life time. The children were asked to mix these in water and note their observations. They were thus able to differentiate between soluble and insoluble substances. They learned to work as a team and nuances of live sports commentary. Teacher demonstrated attraction and repulsion of magnets with the help of ring magnets and a stand. The students were ecstatic on observing repulsion in the form of levitation. The demonstration drove home the idea of repulsion being exhibited by like poles only. The student were also asked to narrate his experience on being a rescuer or rescued.

The students further explored the various arenas like home,school, workplace etc. Students deciphered the information provided in the case study to list out the causes, effects and provided steps to control it. Each group was given different set of positive and negative radicals and they worked as a team to develop molecular formulas using the valency cards.

Sivaranjani Viswanathan from 11A was awarded Best Illustrator. How to avoid common mistakes which included; too many animations, too much written data, not enough contrast between background and written text. Linking of media files with the presentation : This was demonstrated by inserting video or audio files, by hyperlinking video or audio files. Teachers deal with those problems on a one-on-one basis deepening understanding of the topic. It is taken further by worksheets or exercises done in class. It aids in clarification of thought and in application, too. Can be used through a spectrum of subjects and include concept maps, mind maps and flow charts. It helps them develop leadership skills. They express concepts, ideas, facts with clarity. Teachers can easily assess the class and evaluate the extent of their understanding.

It helps those who are shy to also contribute to the learning process. Everyone's voice is heard. They learn to defend their opinions and take a stand in a larger group. It is ideal for analytical thinking and higher order questions. They share material with others, enhancing their own learning and also listening to the other members in the group who have studied other aspects of the topic. It improves team work, communication skills and encourages peer learning.

Ubale ,Ms. Khandwani, Ms M. Fernandes Ms. It appeals to the gaming instinct in children and makes testing effortless with the results declared immediately. It gives the teacher a quick round- up of the performance of her class. The presentation was a live demo that brought out the competitive spirit of the staff. They represented these areas using colourful symbols. Dates: 11th and 12th July Activity : Poetry Writing Students were given different topics based on nature.

They were made to compose a poem of 4 to 5 lines on the spot in class. The students enjoyed adding rhyme scheme and descriptive words to add a lively touch to their composition. Students provided informative stategies to reduce global warming. They suggested ways in which they as students can contribute to tackle the problem. Meanwhile, the wife is the actual bondservant of her husband; no less so, as far as the legal obligation goes, than slaves commonly so called. Then a member of parliament, Mill argued that women deserve the right to vote , though his proposal to replace the term "man" with "person" in the second Reform Bill of was greeted with laughter in the House of Commons and defeated by 76 to votes.

His arguments won little support amongst contemporaries [] but his attempt to amend the reform bill generated greater attention for the issue of women's suffrage in Britain. This arrangement implicitly excluded women as property law and marriage law gave men ownership rights at marriage or inheritance until the 19th century. Although male suffrage broadened during the century, women were explicitly prohibited from voting nationally and locally in the s by the Reform Act and the Municipal Corporations Act By the s, the economic sexual politics of middle-class women in Britain and its neighboring Western European countries was guided by factors such as the evolution of 19th century consumer culture, including the emergence of the department store , and Separate spheres.

In Come Buy, Come Buy: Shopping and the Culture of Consumption in Victorian Women's Writing , Krista Lysack's literary analysis of 19th century contemporary literature claims through her resources' reflection of common contemporary norms, "Victorian femininity as characterized by self-renunciation and the regulation of appetite. While women, particularly those in the middle class, obtained modest control of daily household expenses and had the ability to leave the house, attend social events, and shop for personal and household items in the various department stores developing in late 19th century Europe, Europe's socioeconomic climate pervaded the ideology that women were not in complete control over their urges to spend assuming their husband or father's wages.

As a result, many advertisements for socially 'feminine' goods revolved around upward social progression, exoticisms from the Orient , and added efficiency for household roles women were deemed responsible for, such as cleaning, childcare, and cooking. By law and custom, Muscovite Russia was a patriarchal society that subordinated women to men, and the young to their elders. Peter the Great relaxed the second custom, but not the subordination of women. But during Peter's reign, only the man could get rid of his wife by putting her in a nunnery.

In terms of laws, there were double standards to women. Adulterous wives were sentenced to forced labor, while men who murdered their wives were merely flogged. In the 18th century, Russian orthodox church further got its authority over marriage and banned priests from granting divorce, even for severely abused wives. During World War I , caring for children was increasingly difficult for women, many of whom could not support themselves, and whose husbands had died or were fighting in the war. Many women had to give up their children to children's homes infamous for abuse and neglect.

These children's homes were unofficially dubbed as "angel factories". After the October Revolution , the Bolsheviks shut down an infamous angel factory known as the 'Nikolaev Institute' situated near the Moika Canal. The Bolsheviks then replaced the Nikolaev Institute with a modern maternity home called the 'Palace for Mothers and Babies'. This maternity home was used by the Bolsheviks as a model for future maternity hospitals. The countess who ran the old Institute was moved to a side wing, however she spread rumours that the Bolsheviks had removed sacred pictures, and that the nurses were promiscuous with sailors.

The maternity hospital was burnt down hours before it was scheduled to open, and the countess was suspected of being responsible. Russian women had restrictions in owning property until the mid 18th century. Under the Bolsheviks, Russia became the first country in human history to provide free abortions to women in state run hospitals. Women's rights activism in Canada during the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on increasing women's role in public life, with goals including women's suffrage, increased property rights, increased access to education, and recognition of women as "persons" under the law.

Canada Attorney General. The Women's Christian Temperance Union WCTU was established in and championed women's rights, including advocating for prostitutes and for women's suffrage. The extent to which women could participate in Japanese society has varied over time and social classes. In the 8th century, Japan had women emperors, and in the 12th century Heian period women in Japan occupied a relatively high status, although still subordinated to men. From the late Edo period , the status of women declined. In the 17th century, the " Onna Daigaku ", or "Learning for Women", by Confucianist author Kaibara Ekken , spelled out expectations for Japanese women, lowering significantly their status.

From the mid 20th century the status of women improved greatly. Although Japan is often considered a very conservative country, it was in fact earlier than many European countries on giving women legal rights in the 20th century, as the Constitution of Japan provided a legal framework favorable to the advancement of women's equality in Japan. Japan for instance enacted women's suffrage in , earlier than several European countries such as Switzerland at federal level; on local issues in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden , Portugal on equal terms with men, with restrictions since , San Marino in , Monaco in , Andorra in , and Liechtenstein in Central Asian cultures largely remain patriarchal, however, since the fall of the former Soviet Union, the secular societies of the region have become more progressive to women's roles outside the traditional construct of being wholly subservient to men.

The history of women's rights in Australia is a contradictory one: while Australia led the world in women's suffrage rights in the 19th century, it has been very slow in recognizing women's professional rights — it was not until that its marriage bar was removed. In this regard, Australia differs from other cultures, in that women's suffrage in Australia was one of the earliest objectives of the feminist movement there beginning with South Australia and Western Australia unlike other cultures, such as Eastern European cultures, where at the turn of the 20th century the feminist movement focused on labour rights , access to professions and education, rather than political rights.

To this day, Australia has a quite low percentage of women in business executive roles compared to other countries with equivalent corporate structures. Like the ancient philosophers, 17th century natural law philosophers defended slavery and an inferior status of women in law. They believed that natural rights were self-evident to "civilised man" who lives "in the highest form of society". Zeno argued that each rational and civilized male Greek citizen had a "divine spark" or "soul" within him that existed independent of the body.

Zeno founded the Stoic philosophy and the idea of a human nature was adopted by other Greek philosophers, and later natural law philosophers and western humanists. Concepts of human nature in ancient Greece depended on gender, ethnicity, and other qualifications [] and 17th century natural law philosophers came to regard women along with children, slaves and non-whites, as neither "rational" nor "civilised". They believed that women could not be treated as equal due to their "inner nature". The views of 17th century natural law philosophers were opposed in the 18th and 19th century by evangelical natural theology philosophers such as William Wilberforce and Charles Spurgeon , who argued for the abolition of slavery and advocated for women to have rights equal to that of men.

Employment rights for women include non-discriminatory access of women to jobs and equal pay. The rights of women and men to have equal pay and equal benefits for equal work were openly denied by the British Hong Kong Government up to the early s. Before this, the job status of a woman changed from permanent employee to temporary employee once she was married, thus losing the pension benefit. Some of them even lost their jobs. Since nurses were mostly women, this improvement of the rights of married women meant much to the nursing profession. A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women.

During the 19th century some women began to ask for, demand, and then agitate and demonstrate for the right to vote — the right to participate in their government and its law making. During the 19th century the right to vote was gradually extended in many countries, and women started to campaign for their right to vote. In New Zealand became the first country to give women the right to vote on a national level. Australia gave women the right to vote in A number of Nordic countries gave women the right to vote in the early 20th century — Finland , Norway , Denmark and Iceland Late adopters in Europe were Greece in , Switzerland at federal level; — on local issues at canton level , Portugal on equal terms with men, with restrictions since as well as the microstates of San Marino in , Monaco in , Andorra in , and Liechtenstein in In Canada, most provinces enacted women's suffrage between and , late adopters being Prince Edward Island in , Newfoundland in and Quebec in In Latin America some countries gave women the right to vote in the first half of the 20th century — Ecuador , Brazil , El Salvador , Dominican Republic , Guatemala and Argentina In India , under colonial rule, universal suffrage was granted in Other Asian countries gave women the right to vote in the mid 20th century — Japan , China and Indonesia In Africa, women generally got the right to vote along with men through universal suffrage — Liberia , Uganda and Nigeria In many countries in the Middle East universal suffrage was acquired after World War II, although in others, such as Kuwait , suffrage is very limited.

During the 19th century some women, such as Ernestine Rose , Paulina Wright Davis , Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Harriet Beecher Stowe , in the United States and Britain began to challenge laws that denied them the right to their property once they married. Under the common law doctrine of coverture husbands gained control of their wives' real estate and wages. Beginning in the s, state legislatures in the United States [] and the British Parliament [] began passing statutes that protected women's property from their husbands and their husbands' creditors. These laws were known as the Married Women's Property Acts. A privy examination was a practice in which a married woman who wished to sell her property had to be separately examined by a judge or justice of the peace outside of the presence of her husband and asked if her husband was pressuring her into signing the document.

For example, in West Germany , the law pertaining to rural farm succession favored male heirs until The Supreme Court, in Kirchberg v. Feenstra , declared such laws unconstitutional. For instance, in some countries women may not leave the home without a male guardian, [] or without the consent of the husband — for example the personal law of Yemen states that a wife must obey her husband and must not get out of the home without his consent. Laws restricting women from travelling existed until relatively recently in some Western countries: until , in Australia the passport application of a married woman had to be authorized by her husband.

Several Middle Eastern countries also follow the male guardianship system in the modern era, where women are required to seek permission from the male family member for several things, including traveling to other nations. In August , Saudi Arabia ended its male guardianship laws, allowing women to travel by themselves. Various practices have been used historically to restrict women's freedom of movement, such as foot binding , the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young Chinese girls, which was common between the 10th and 20th century. Women's freedom of movement may be restricted by laws, but it may also be restricted by attitudes towards women in public spaces.

In areas where it is not socially accepted for women to leave the home, women who are outside may face abuse such as insults, sexual harassment and violence. Many of the restrictions on women's freedom of movement are framed as measures to "protect" women. The lack of legal knowledge among many women, especially in developing countries, is a major obstacle in the improvement of women's situation. International bodies, such as the United Nations, have stated that the obligation of states does not only consist in passing relevant laws, but also in informing women about the existence of such laws, in order to enable them to seek justice and realize in practice their rights.

Therefore, states must popularize the laws, and explain them clearly to the public, in order to prevent ignorance, or misconceptions originating in popular myths , about the laws. The United Nations Development Programme states that, in order to advance gender justice, "Women must know their rights and be able to access legal systems", [] and the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states at Art. Women's rights movements focus on ending discrimination of women. In this regard, the definition of discrimination itself is important. According to the jurisprudence of the ECHR , the right to freedom from discrimination includes not only the obligation of states to treat in the same way persons who are in analogous situations, but also the obligation to treat in a different way persons who are in different situations.

Therefore, states must sometimes differentiate between women and men — through for example offering maternity leave or other legal protections surrounding pregnancy and childbirth to take into account the biological realities of reproduction , or through acknowledging a specific historical context. For example, acts of violence committed by men against women do not happen in a vacuum, but are part of a social context: in Opuz v Turkey , the ECHR defined violence against women as a form of discrimination against women; [] [] this is also the position of the Istanbul Convention which at Article 3 states that "violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women [ There are different views on where it is appropriate to differentiate between women and men, and one view is that the act of sexual intercourse is an act where this difference must be acknowledged, both due to the increased physical risks for the woman, [] and due to the historical context of women being systematically subjected to forced sexual intercourse while in a socially subordinated position particularly within marriage and during war.

According to the World Health Organization "Discrimination in health care settings takes many forms and is often manifested when an individual or group is denied access to health care services that are otherwise available to others. It can also occur through denial of services that are only needed by certain groups, such as women. In this regard treating women and men similarly does not work because certain biological aspects such as menstruation, pregnancy, labor, childbirth, breastfeeding, as well as certain medical conditions, only affect women. Health is defined by the World Health Organization as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".

Women's health is severely impaired in some parts of the world, due to factors such as inequality, confinement of women to the home, indifference of medical workers, lack of autonomy of women, lack of financial resources of women. The right to education is a universal entitlement to education. Access to education for women remains limited in some parts of the world. Almost two-thirds of the world's illiterate adults are women.

While women's right to access to academic education is recognized as very important, it is increasingly recognized that academic education must be supplemented with education on human rights , non-discrimination , ethics and gender equality , in order for social advancement to be possible. This was pointed out by Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein , the current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights , who stressed the importance of human rights education for all children: "What good was it to humanity that Josef Mengele had advanced degrees in medicine and anthropology, given that he was capable of committing the most inhuman crimes?

Eight of the 15 people who planned the Holocaust at Wannsee in held PhDs. They shone academically, and yet they were profoundly toxic to the world. Pol Pot studied radio electronics in Paris. Does this matter, when neither of them showed the smallest shred of ethics and understanding? Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health. In the s feminists advanced the concept of voluntary motherhood as a political critique of involuntary motherhood [] and expressing a desire for women's emancipation.

Reproductive rights represents a broad concept, that may include some or all of the following rights: the right to legal or safe abortion, the right to control one's reproductive functions , the right to access quality reproductive healthcare , and the right to education and access in order to make reproductive choices free from coercion , discrimination, and violence. Reproductive rights are understood as rights of both men and women, but are most frequently advanced as women's rights.

In the s, reproductive rights activists promoted women's right to bodily autonomy, with these social movements leading to the gain of legal access to contraception and abortion during the next decades in many countries. In the early 20th century birth control was advanced as alternative to the then fashionable terms family limitation and voluntary motherhood.

The British birth control campaigner Marie Stopes made contraception acceptable in Britain during the s by framing it in scientific terms. Stopes assisted emerging birth control movements in a number of British colonies. Slogans such as "control over our own bodies" criticised male domination and demanded women's liberation, a connotation that is absent from the family planning , population control and eugenics movements. Birth control has become a major theme in United States politics. Reproductive issues are cited as examples of women's powerlessness to exercise their rights. Women's reproductive rights may be understood as including the right to easy access to a safe and legal abortion.

Abortion laws vary from a full prohibition the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Malta, Nicaragua, the Vatican [] to countries such as Canada , where there are no legal restrictions. In many countries where abortion is permitted by law, women may only have limited access to safe abortion services. In some countries abortion is permitted only to save the pregnant woman's life, or if the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. According to Human Rights Watch , "Abortion is a highly emotional subject and one that excites deeply held opinions. However, equitable access to safe abortion services is first and foremost a human right. Where abortion is safe and legal, no one is forced to have one. Where abortion is illegal and unsafe, women are forced to carry unwanted pregnancies to term or suffer serious health consequences and even death.

According to World Health Organization, 56 million abortions on average occurred worldwide each year in — The Catholic Church and many other Christian faiths , particularly those considered the Christian right , and most Orthodox Jews regard abortion not as a right, but as a moral evil and a Mortal sin. Russia was the first country to legalise abortions and offer free medical care in state hospitals to do so. After the October Revolution , the Women's wing of the Bolshevik Party the Zhenotdel persuaded the Bolsheviks to legalise abortion as a 'temporary measure'. The Bolsheviks legalised abortion in November This was the first time in world history that women had won the right to free abortions in state hospitals.

The abuse of women during childbirth is a recently identified global problem and a basic violation of a woman's rights. This treatment is regarded as a violation of the woman's rights. It also has the effect of preventing women from seeking pre-natal care and using other health care services. Child marriage is a practice which is widespread across the world, and is often connected to poverty and gender inequality.

Child marriage endangers the reproductive health of young girls, leading to an increased risk of complications in pregnancy or childbirth. Such complications are a leading cause of death among girls in developing countries. Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman or girl to become pregnant , often as part of a forced marriage , including by means of bride kidnapping , through rape including marital rape , war rape and genocidal rape or as part of a program of breeding slaves see Slave breeding in the United States.

It is a form of reproductive coercion , was common historically, and still occurs in parts of the world. In the 20th century, state mandated forced marriage with the aim of increasing the population was practiced by some authoritarian governments, notably during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia , which systematically forced people into marriages ordering them to have children, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution.

Violence against women is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states, "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women" and "violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men. It may occur in private or in public. Violence against women may be sexual violence, physical violence, psychological violence, socioeconomic violence.

Some forms of violence against women have long cultural traditions: honor killings , dowry violence , female genital mutilation. Violence against women is considered by the World Health Organization "a major public health problem and a violation of women's human rights. Under male dominated family law , women had few, if any, rights, being under the control of the husband or male relatives. Legal concepts that existed throughout the centuries, such as coverture , marital power , Head and Master laws , kept women under the strict control of their husbands. Restrictions from marriage laws also extended to public life, such as marriage bars. Practices such as dowry or bride price were, and still are to this day in some parts of the world, very common.

Some countries continue to require to this day a male guardian for women, without whom women cannot exercise civil rights. Other harmful practices include marriage of young girls, often to much older men. In the subsequent decades women's rights again became an important issue in the English speaking world. By the s the movement was called "feminism" or "women's liberation.

Their efforts were met with mixed results. The International Council of Women ICW was the first women's organization to work across national boundaries for the common cause of advocating human rights for women. In March and April , women leaders came together in Washington D. Women from professional organizations, trade unions, arts groups and benevolent societies participate. National Councils are affiliated to the ICW and thus make themselves heard at international level.

Currently, it is composed of 70 countries and has a headquarters in Lasaunne, Switzerland. International meetings are held every three years. In the UK, a public groundswell of opinion in favour of legal equality had gained pace, partly through the extensive employment of women in what were traditional male roles during both world wars. By the s the legislative process was being readied, tracing through MP Willie Hamilton 's select committee report, his equal pay for equal work bill, [] the creation of a Sex Discrimination Board, Lady Sear 's draft sex anti-discrimination bill, a government Green Paper of , until when the first British Sex Discrimination Act, an Equal Pay Act, and an Equal Opportunities Commission came into force.

This amendment stated that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex. Supporters believed it would guarantee women equal treatment. But critics feared it might deny women the right be financially supported by their husbands. The amendment died in because not enough states had ratified it. ERAs have been included in subsequent Congresses, but have still failed to be ratified. Women for Women International WfWI is a nonprofit humanitarian organization that provides practical and moral support to women survivors of war. WfWI helps such women rebuild their lives after war's devastation through a year-long tiered program that begins with direct financial aid and emotional counseling and includes life skills e.

The National Council of Women of Canada Conseil national des femmes du Canada , is a Canadian advocacy organization based in Ottawa aimed at improving conditions for women, families, and communities. A federation of nationally organized societies of men and women and local and provincial councils of women, it is the Canadian member of the International Council of Women ICW. The council has concerned itself in areas including women's suffrage , immigration, health care , education , mass media, the environment , and many others.

The Association for the Protection and Defense of Women's Rights in Saudi Arabia is a Saudi Non-governmental organization founded to provide activism for women's rights. It was founded by Wajeha al-Huwaider and Fawzia Al-Uyyouni, and grew out of a movement to gain women the right to drive. The association is not officially licensed by the government of Saudi Arabia, and has been warned not to mount demonstrations. The organisation is internationally known for its topless protests against sex tourists, international marriage agencies, sexism and other social, national and international social illnesses. These conferences created an international forum for women's rights, but also illustrated divisions between women of different cultures and the difficulties of attempting to apply principles universally.

This included a commitment to achieve " gender equality and the empowerment of women". Compared to the Western women's right's movements, international women's rights are plagued with different issues. While it is called international women's rights, it is also can be known as third world feminism. The international women's rights deal with issues such as marriage, sexual slavery, forced child marriage, and female genital mutilation. Some 60 million girls become 'child brides,' forced to marry, sometimes after being kidnapped and raped". It was set in place to help against discrimination in education, marriage, sexual violence, and politics. While this does not only pertain to non- western countries, states have ratified it.

A report from the World Bank found that women have full legal rights to men in only six countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Latvia, Luxembourg and Sweden. Regions where women's rights are less developed have produced interesting local organisations, such as:. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights , adopted in , enshrines "the equal rights of men and women", and addressed both the equality and equity issues.

Described as an international bill of rights for women , it came into force on 3 September Niue and the Vatican City, which are non-member states, have also not ratified it. Any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. It also establishes an agenda of action for putting an end to sex-based discrimination for which states ratifying the convention are required to enshrine gender equality into their domestic legislation, repeal all discriminatory provisions in their laws, and enact new provisions to guard against discrimination against women.

They must also establish tribunals and public institutions to guarantee women effective protection against discrimination, and take steps to eliminate all forms of discrimination practiced against women by individuals, organizations, and enterprises. Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the right of consenting men and women to marry and found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations [ In addition to these, "The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect". Polygamous marriage is a controversial practice, prevalent in some parts of the world. The general recommendations made by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, state in General Recommendation No. Cohabitation of unmarried couples as well as single mothers are common in some parts the world. The Human Rights Committee has stated: []. In giving effect to recognition of the family in the context of article 23, it is important to accept the concept of the various forms of family, including unmarried couples and their children and single parents and their children and to ensure the equal treatment of women in these contexts General Comment 19 paragraph 2 last sentence.

Single parent families frequently consist of a single woman caring for one or more children, and States parties should describe what measures of support are in place to enable her to discharge her parental functions on the basis of equality with a man in a similar position. This declaration recognizes women's rights as being protected human rights. Paragraph 18 reads: []. The full and equal participation of women in political, civil, economic, social and cultural life, at the national, regional and international levels, and the eradication of all forms of discrimination on grounds of sex are priority objectives of the international community". On 31 October , the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted United Nations Security Council Resolution , the first formal and legal document from the United Nations Security Council that requires all states to respect fully international humanitarian law and international human rights law applicable to the rights and protection of women and girls during and after the armed conflicts.

On 25 November , having been ratified by the required 15 member nations of the African Union, the protocol entered into force. The Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , better known as the Istanbul Convention, was adopted by the Council of Europe on 11 May It defines violence against women as " any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.

As a consequence of the resolution, in , the General Assembly declared the day of 25 November to be the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. Article 2 of The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women outlines several forms of violence against women:. The Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , also known as the Istanbul Convention, is the first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of domestic violence and violence against women, [] and came into force in In its Preamble, the Convention states that "the realisation of de jure and de facto equality between women and men is a key element in the prevention of violence against women".

The convention also provides a definition of domestic violence as "all acts of physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence that occur within the family or domestic unit or between former or current spouses or partners, whether or not the perpetrator shares or has shared the same residence with the victim". Rape, sometimes called sexual assault , is an assault by a person involving sexual intercourse with or sexual penetration of another person without that person's consent. Rape is generally considered a serious sex crime as well as a civil assault.

When part of a widespread and systematic practice, rape and sexual slavery are now recognised as a crime against humanity as well as a war crime. Rape is also now recognised as a form of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy , in whole or in part, a targeted group. In , the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda established by the United Nations made landmark decisions that rape is a crime of genocide under international law. The trial of Jean-Paul Akayesu , the mayor of Taba Commune in Rwanda, established precedents that rape is an element of the crime of genocide. The Akayesu judgement includes the first interpretation and application by an international court of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive", and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group. It found that sexual assault formed an integral part of the process of destroying the Tutsi ethnic group and that the rape was systematic and had been perpetrated against Tutsi women only, manifesting the specific intent required for those acts to constitute genocide.

Judge Navanethem Pillay said in a statement after the verdict: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as one of the spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war. The Rome Statute Explanatory Memorandum, which defines the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court , recognises rape, sexual slavery , enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy , enforced sterilization , "or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity" as a crime against humanity if the action is part of a widespread or systematic practice. Rape was first recognised as a crime against humanity when the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia issued arrest warrants based on the Geneva Conventions and Violations of the Laws or Customs of War.

Specifically, it was recognised that Muslim women in Foca southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina were subjected to systematic and widespread gang rape , torture, and sexual enslavement by Bosnian Serb soldiers, policemen, and members of paramilitary groups after the takeover of the city in April This ruling challenged the widespread acceptance of rape and sexual enslavement of women as intrinsic part of war. Furthermore, two of the men were found guilty of the crime against humanity of sexual enslavement for holding women and girls captive in a number of de facto detention centres.

Many of the women subsequently disappeared. North Korea bans citizens from traveling abroad. Those women who were detained for doing so were regularly beaten, tortured, and subjected to forced nudity and invasive body searches. Women have also reported that in case of pregnancy, the prison officials aborted many children by either beating the women or making them do hard labor. The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery defines "institutions and practices similar to slavery" to include: [].

The Istanbul Convention requires countries which ratify it to prohibit forced marriage Article 37 and to ensure that forced marriages can be easily voided without further victimization Article It is one of the three Palermo protocols. Its purpose is defined at Article 2. Statement of purpose as: " a To prevent and combat trafficking in persons, paying particular attention to women and children; b To protect and assist the victims of such trafficking, with full respect for their human rights; and c To promote cooperation among States Parties in order to meet those objectives.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Emancipation of women. Rights claimed for women and girls worldwide. For the album by Childbirth, see Women's Rights album. Claim rights and liberty rights Individual and group rights Natural rights and legal rights Negative and positive rights. Civil and political Economic, social and cultural Three generations. See also: Legal rights of women in history and Timeline of women's rights other than voting.

Main article: Women in ancient Egypt. Main article: Women in India. Further information: Women in Greece. Respectable Athenian women were expected to involve themselves in domestic tasks such as washing clothes left ; in reality, many worked right. Further information: Women in ancient Rome. Further information: Women in the Byzantine Empire. Main articles: Women in ancient and imperial China and Women in China.

Main article: Women in the Bible. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Women's rights. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Timeline of women's legal rights in the United States other than voting. Main article: Women in Japan. Further information: Employment discrimination law in the European Union. Main article: Women's suffrage. Further information: Right to education , Female education , and Gender and education.

Main article: Reproductive rights. Main article: Abuse during childbirth. Main article: Child marriage. Main article: Forced pregnancy. Signed and ratified. Acceded or succeeded. Unrecognized state, abiding by treaty. Only signed. Main article: Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. Not signed. Main article: International framework of sexual violence. See also: Rwandan genocide. Main article: Crimes against humanity. See also: Forced conversion of minority girls in Pakistan and Sexual slavery in Islam.

Female education Wahre und Falsche "Frauen-Emanzipation" , an early essay Gender apartheid Gender Inequality Index Gendercide History of feminism Index of feminism articles Legal rights of women in history List of civil rights leaders List of feminists List of suffragists and suffragettes List of women's organizations List of women's rights activists Men's rights movement Misogyny Pregnant patients' rights Sex workers' rights Simone de Beauvoir Prize Timeline of women's legal rights other than voting Timeline of women's suffrage Women's rights in Women's Social and Political Union.

This leads some sources to count Cuba as one of the 35 OAS member states, while other sources assert that there are only 34 OAS member states. May , pp. Rhetoric before and beyond the Greeks. SUNY Press. ISBN Mark 4 November World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26 July InfoChange India. Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 24 December Women in India: towards gender equality. New Delhi: Authorspress. In Majumdar, R. The history and culture of the Indian people, volume I, the Vedic age. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC Women of Ancient Greece. San Diego: Lucent Books. Debating women's equality: toward a feminist theory of law from a European perspective. Rutgers University Press.

Women in ancient Greece, Volume , Part 2. Harvard University Press. Ancient Greek democracy: readings and sources. Sabre and Scroll. Archived from the original on 13 May New York: Schocken Books, Women's studies encyclopaedia, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. Spartan Women. Oxford University Press, Frier and Thomas A. Sullivan, "Martial's Sexual Attitudes", Philologus , p. Roman law also recognized rape committed against males. Cambridge University Press. The chief differences between canon and Roman law were in the law of marriage Fulton The United Study of Forring ed.

Hong Kong Baptist University. Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 9 December Retrieved 9 October The Developing Economies. Archived from the original PDF on 3 April Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 11 September Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications. Retrieved 15 October Caw, Jr. Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 19 October The Ultimate Deception. Archived from the original on 10 January Women in Muslim Family Law , 2nd revised Ed.

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