① Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India

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Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India



But Atonement Briony Analysis fact that Sines was awarded by the king provoked Lencastre to refuse out of principle, lest it encourage the Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India to Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India other donations of the Order's pink mr. president. The Portuguese explorer was Social Safety Net Socialism greeted warmly Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India the Muslim merchants of Calicut, and in he had to fight his way out of the harbor on Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India return trip home. When the Portuguese king Manuel Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India of Portugal decided to appoint the first governor and viceroy Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India Portuguese India inVasco Da Gamas Journey To India Gama was conspicuously overlooked, and the post given Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India Francisco de Almeida. Following da Gama's completion Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India King John II's orders, inKing Manuel Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India the throne, and the country revived its earlier mission to find a direct Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India route to India. ISBN Here is the story of Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India Da Gama, how he discovered the sea Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India to Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India and how his discovery paved way for the arrival of Dutch, French, Danish, and the Vasco Da Gamas Journey To India.

Truth about Vasco da Gama and his voyage to India

Da Gama sets sail for India. Hoping to capitalize on the prevailing winds, he sets a course south along the coast of Africa, then swings out into the Atlantic, only to return to the southeastern coast of Africa. This establishes sailing routes that are still used today. Da Gama lands on the east coast of Africa. Da Gama and his crew land in Mozambique, an Islamic city-state on the east coast of Africa. Da Gama attempts an audience with the sultan, but he offers only limited gifts and the local population forces him to leave.

Da Gama acquires a Muslim pilot. At the port of Malindi, Da Gama takes on a Muslim pilot, who instructs him on navigating the difficult winds and currents of the Indian Ocean. Da Gama becomes the first European to complete a sea voyage to India. The Portuguese mistakenly believe the residents are Christians, as they have never heard of Hinduism. The crew remains for three months, but the local Muslims traders refuse to allow them to barter freely.

Da Gama departs India. Da Gama and his crew set sail for Europe, bearing spices and the news of their discovery. Along the way they are caught in a monsoon and several crewmembers die of scurvy. Da Gama is forced to reduce his fleet by burning one of his ships. Da Gama is hailed as a hero for his discovery. Accompanied by only 54 of his original crew members, da Gama arrives back in Portugal. The Portuguese government treats da Gama as a hero and immediately sends another group of ships back to India to establish a Portuguese trading post. On the way to India, this new expedition kills a number of Muslim sailors, and the Arabs eventually retaliate by killing all members of the trading post. Da Gama sets sail for India again, this time in charge of 20 ships.

His goal is to avenge the deaths of members of the trading post. He sweeps up the eastern coast of Africa, attacking Arab Muslim ships along the way and wrecking the port city of Calicut in India. He forces the ruler of Calicut to make peace. But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey. On the outgoing journey, sailing with the summer monsoon wind, da Gama's fleet crossed the Indian Ocean in only 23 days; now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took days.

Da Gama saw land again only on 2 January , passing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishu , then under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa. The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.

Da Gama's fleet finally arrived in Malindi on 7 January , in a terrible state — approximately half of the crew had died during the crossing, and many of the rest were afflicted with scurvy. Thereafter, the sailing was smoother. The diary record of the expedition ends abruptly here. Da Gama and his sickly brother eventually hitched a ride with a Guinea caravel returning to Portugal, but Paulo da Gama died en route. He eventually took passage on an Azorean caravel and finally arrived in Lisbon on 29 August according to Barros , [28] or early September [17] 8th or 18th, according to other sources.

Despite his melancholic mood, da Gama was given a hero's welcome and showered with honors, including a triumphal procession and public festivities. King Manuel wrote two letters in which he described da Gama's first voyage, in July and August , soon after the return of the ships. Girolamo Sernigi also wrote three letters describing da Gama's first voyage soon after the return of the expedition. The expedition had exacted a large cost — two ships and over half the men had been lost. It had also failed in its principal mission of securing a commercial treaty with Calicut.

Nonetheless, the small quantities of spices and other trade goods brought back on the remaining two ships demonstrated the potential of great profit for future trade. His path would be followed up thereafter by yearly Portuguese India Armadas. The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese royal treasury, and other consequences soon followed. For example, da Gama's voyage had made it clear that the east coast of Africa, the Contra Costa , was essential to Portuguese interests; its ports provided fresh water, provisions, timber, and harbors for repairs, and served as a refuge where ships could wait out unfavorable weather.

One significant result was the colonization of Mozambique by the Portuguese Crown. This turned out to be a complicated affair, for Sines still belonged to the Order of Santiago. The master of the Order, Jorge de Lencastre , might have endorsed the reward — after all, da Gama was a Santiago knight, one of their own, and a close associate of Lencastre himself. But the fact that Sines was awarded by the king provoked Lencastre to refuse out of principle, lest it encourage the king to make other donations of the Order's properties. In the meantime, da Gama made do with a substantial hereditary royal pension of , reis.

He was awarded the noble title of Dom lord in perpetuity for himself, his siblings and their descendants. On 30 January , da Gama was awarded the title of Almirante dos mares de Arabia, Persia, India e de todo o Oriente "Admiral of the Seas of Arabia, Persia, India and all the Orient" — an overwrought title reminiscent of the ornate Castilian title borne by Christopher Columbus evidently, Manuel must have reckoned that if Castile had an 'Admiral of the Ocean Seas', then surely Portugal should have one too. However, Pedro Cabral entered into a conflict with the local Arab merchant guilds, with the result that the Portuguese factory was overrun in a riot and up to 70 Portuguese were killed. Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city.

Thus war broke out between Portugal and Calicut. Vasco da Gama invoked his royal letter to take command of the 4th India Armada , scheduled to set out in , with the explicit aim of taking revenge upon the Zamorin and force him to submit to Portuguese terms. The heavily armed fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men left Lisbon on 12 February The 4th Armada was a veritable da Gama family affair. On the outgoing voyage, da Gama's fleet opened contact with the East African gold trading port of Sofala and reduced the sultanate of Kilwa to tribute, extracting a substantial sum of gold. They offered their wealth, which "could ransom all the Christian slaves in the Kingdom of Fez and much more" but were not spared.

Da Gama looked on through the porthole and saw the women bringing up their gold and jewels and holding up their babies to beg for mercy. After stopping at Cannanore, Gama drove his fleet before Calicut, demanding redress for the treatment of Cabral. Having known of the fate of the pilgrims' ship, the Zamorin adopted a conciliatory attitude towards the Portuguese and expressed willingness to sign a new treaty but da Gama made a call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was turned down.

Da Gama called him a spy, ordered the priests' lips and ears to be cut off and after sewing a pair of dog's ears to his head, sent him away. He also captured several rice vessels and cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with a note to the Zamorin, in which Gama declared that he would be open to friendly relations once the Zamorin had paid for the items plundered from the feitoria as well as the gunpowder and cannoballs. The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut depended, to a standstill. The Zamorin ventured to dispatch a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada, but which Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor. Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin and Cannanore , small nearby kingdoms at war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets.

The 4th armada left India in early Vasco da Gama arrived back in Portugal in September , effectively having failed in his mission to bring the Zamorin to submission. When the Portuguese king Manuel I of Portugal decided to appoint the first governor and viceroy of Portuguese India in , da Gama was conspicuously overlooked, and the post given to Francisco de Almeida. For the next two decades, Vasco da Gama lived out a quiet life, unwelcome in the royal court and sidelined from Indian affairs. His attempts to return to the favor of Manuel I including switching over to the Order of Christ in , yielded little.

Almeida , the larger-than-life Afonso de Albuquerque and, later on, Albergaria and Sequeira , were the king's preferred point men for India. After Ferdinand Magellan defected to the Crown of Castile in , Vasco da Gama threatened to do the same, prompting the king to undertake steps to retain him in Portugal and avoid the embarrassment of losing his own "Admiral of the Indies" to Spain. The decree granted Vasco da Gama and his heirs all the revenues and privileges related, [40] thus establishing da Gama as the first Portuguese count who was not born with royal blood. Vasco da Gama re-emerged from his political wilderness as an important adviser to the new king's appointments and strategy. Seeing the new Spanish threat to the Maluku Islands as the priority, Vasco da Gama advised against the obsession with Arabia that had pervaded much of the Manueline period, and continued to be the dominant concern of Duarte de Menezes , then- governor of Portuguese India.

Menezes also turned out to be incompetent and corrupt, subject to numerous complaints. As a result, John III decided to appoint Vasco da Gama himself to replace Menezes, confident that the magic of his name and memory of his deeds might better impress his authority on Portuguese India, and manage the transition to a new government and new strategy. By his appointment letter of February , John III granted Vasco da Gama the privileged title of " Viceroy ", being only the second Portuguese governor to enjoy that title the first was Francisco de Almeida in After a troubled journey [ clarification needed ] four or five of the ships were lost en route , he arrived in India in September.

Vasco da Gama immediately invoked his high viceregent powers to impose a new order in Portuguese India, replacing all the old officials with his own appointments. But Gama contracted malaria not long after arriving, and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas Eve in , three months after his arrival. As per royal instructions, da Gama was succeeded as governor of India by one of the captains who had come with him, Henrique de Menezes no relation to Duarte. Vasco da Gama's body was first buried at St. Francis Church , which was located at Fort Kochi in the city of Kochi , but his remains were returned to Portugal in The body of Vasco da Gama was re-interred in Vidigueira in a casket decorated with gold and jewels. His male-line issue became extinct in , though the title continued through the female-line.

Vasco da Gama is one of the most famous and celebrated explorers from the Age of Discovery. As much as anyone after Henry the Navigator , he was responsible for Portugal's success as an early colonising power. Beside the fact of the first voyage itself, it was his astute mix of politics and war on the other side of the world that placed Portugal in a prominent position in Indian Ocean trade. Following da Gama's initial voyage, the Portuguese crown realized that securing outposts on the eastern coast of Africa would prove vital to maintaining national trade routes to the Far East.

However, his fame is tempered by such incidents and attitudes as displayed in the notorious Pilgrim Ship Incident previously discussed. The events depicted, however, are fictitious. Meyerbeer's working title for the opera was Vasco da Gama. The suburb of Vasco in Cape Town also honours him. Vasco da Gama was the only explorer on the final pool of Os Grandes Portugueses. Although the final shortlist featured other Age of Discovery related people, they were not actually explorers nor navigators for any matter. The Portuguese Navy has a class of frigates named after him. There are three Vasco da Gama class frigates in total, of which the first one also bears his name.

When lined up, these crosses point to Whittle Rock, a large, permanently submerged shipping hazard in False Bay. South African musician Hugh Masekela recorded an anti-colonialist song entitled "Colonial Man", which contains the lyrics "Vasco da Gama was no friend of mine", and another song entitled "Vasco da Gama The Sailor Man ". Both songs were included in his album Colonial Man. Vasco da Gama appears as an antagonist in the Indian film Urumi. The film, directed by Santosh Sivan, depicts atrocities and progression to establish the Portuguese empire by da Gama in India. In March , archaeologists working off the coast of Oman identified a shipwreck believed to be that of the Esmeralda from da Gama's — fleet.

The wreck was initially discovered in Later underwater excavations took place between and through a partnership between the Oman Ministry of Heritage and Culture and Blue Water Recoveries Ltd. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vasco da Gama disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: 4th Portuguese India Armada Gama, July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

See also: Battle of Calicut Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. ISBN Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Cambridge University Press. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 3 October Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, — , p. National Geographic. Retrieved 10 December

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