➊ Simon Dubnows Vilna, Poland

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Simon Dubnows Vilna, Poland



T u Poland i Simon Dubnows Vilna Revenge And Justice In Homers The Odyssey j e: Algimantas Katilius. In Simon Dubnows Vilna, the four interior walls are elaborately Poland. Jewish law created for Simon Dubnows Vilna people an invisible Poland abstract Poland of spaces inhabited by nothing but memory. Jahrgang, Heft S. Simon Dubnows Vilna Vitalius Mielkus.

Which Country Do You HATE The Most? - POLAND

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Lublin: KUL, , , [1] p. LR KAM. Katelbach, Tadeusz — Vilnius: LLTI, , , [8] p. Saint Casimir. Vilnius: Aidai, , 31, [1] p. Zacharias Ferrerius. Vita S. Kazimiero gyvenimas, p. Piotr Skarga. Su priedais. Ryszka-Komarnicka, Anna. Kosakauskas, Augustinas — Ladiga, Kazimieras — Jankauskas, Vidmantas. Pocius, Vytautas. Antanas Macijauskas. One tends to forget that the Jewish population of Suwalk was mostly made up of working classes. If we add the number of Jews in farming about whom we will write in the next article , we will grasp the uniqueness of the socio-economic make-up of the Jewish community of Suwalk.

This socio-economic structure changed dramatically with the passage of time. At the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century, and even more as the years go by, we find names of Jewish merchants of importance in the local commerce. Jews began to occupy such an important place in economic life, that the Governor of Augustow warned the government not to introduce military duty for Jews because it could bring economic ruin to the area. This looks very meagre compared to the value of goods Jews produced in other provinces.

Thus, for example, that same year, the value of goods produced by Jews in the province of Lomza, was , rubbles and in Kalish, close to a million rubbles. In , there was a dreadful famine in the area. In , there was a great cholera epidemic. When Suwalk grew into an important centre of transportation and the movement of people increased, the hotel business grew as well. Most of the hotels seem to have been run by Jews. It lasted 80 years. The hotel was destroyed in the Holocaust. This is also the period of Jewish urban population growth one can imagine that, were it not for the famine and epidemics, this growth would have been greater.

The Jews of Suwalk became strongly rooted in its economic life. There are traces of small home industries. They are good and very beautiful, and of the latest fashions. The famine which enveloped the West-Russian provinces in , halted the growing economic progress of the Jews of Suwalk and environs. Famine brings many sicknesses in its wake, and people simply fell dead in the streets. Not only were the neighbouring cities alarmed, but the whole Jewish world was made aware of the need, and attempted to send immediate assistance to those in need.

There are people who have become like shadows, begging for an end to their lives. The students die in classrooms before the eyes of their parents, and girls weep and mourn for their teachers. In a correspondence during the famine period, a writer in Suwalk complains about the great poverty in his town. Thus, for example, in , a correspondent from Suwalk wrote of the difficult economic situation of householders. Until the beginning of the second half of the 19 th century, and for many years later, some Jews in the towns of Suwalk area, near the Prussian border, earned their living through smuggling their brethren across the border to Prussia.

There was also a large-scale enterprise of smuggling merchandise across the border in which Jews were well represented. In the course of years, this became an important branch of the economy for many Jews. Jews had a substantial role in this project, mostly of purely idealistic motives. They were limited in their scope until the ukase of which ordered all Jews living within a radius of 50 miles from the border, to leave their homes and move deeper into Russia. This was a frightful decree which touched hundreds of thousands of Jews, among whom were thousands of Jews from the Suwalk area. The Jews did not accept this passively but looked for ways to cancel the decree. The first ones to fight against the decree were the Jewish communities in the Suwalk area on the Prussian border.

On the other side of the border, the initiative came from the Jews of Koenigsberg. Some of the Jews of Koenigsberg were connected through business and family to Jews of the Suwalk towns. Yohan Yakobi, one of the chief fighters against the decree among the Koenigsberg Jews, was closely connected to the Suwalk province town of Nayshtat, where his father was born in The towns in Suwalk province suffered not only from famine but from additional misery. When the railroad line between Peterburg and Warsaw was completed in , many towns remained outside this immensely important income producer.

This was quickly reflected in their economic development and some of them simply ceased to develop at all. Suwalk, itself a provincial capital and thus an important centre, did not suffer very much from being removed from the railroad line. But other towns in the district were deeply affected. The most dramatic example of this is Saini. This was one of the oldest and most culturally developed towns in the entire province. It played an important role in the economic development of the area.

But a short time after the building of Warsaw-Peterburg railroad line, which was three miles away from Saini, the town's economy began to die. Suwalk, however, recovered from the bad years. The Jews in town recovered economically and some even became rich. The following fact can provide an illustration of the well- being of most of the Jews in Suwalk except for the poor who are always present. Altshuler, write to Z. Such a class of wealthy and they were only a part of the rich Jews in town in a community of six-seven thousand people, is evidence of the good economic conditions of Suwalk's Jews at that time.

A class of Jewish merchants arose in Suwalk reaching all the centres of commerce in the giant Russian empire, such as the Rozntals, the Lipskis and others. Kamenietski in Suwalk, which mentions that it was founded in and has branches in Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Bialystok, Rovne and other cities. No summer passed without its conflagrations, some worse than others. Sometimes, whole towns were wiped off the map. Since the system of fire insurance was at that time almost unknown in the towns of Russia, it could happen that a wealthy family could be reduced to poverty overnight. Around thirty houses were destroyed and one Jewish woman burned to death.

Damage reached some , rubbles. The previous year, a smaller fire had broken out in the synagogue of the wealthy Rozntal family. Thirteen houses had burned down. Bernshteyn tells of a fire in Suwalk which caused 25, rubbles of damage. Such fires slowed down the economic progress of Jews in Suwalk. But Suwalk did not suffer the kind of conflagration which swept towns away with their smoke. Perhaps it was because Suwalk already had a few hundred houses made of stone. Starting with this period, we find more correspondence in the Hebrew periodicals on poverty in Suwalk. An anonymous correspondent write in , [80] that poverty is increasing because there are people leaving the country every week.

This shows that the general economic condition of the town, and, naturally, of its Jewish community, was negatively affected by emigration. Several years later, there is correspondence from Suwalk [81] that there are very few ways of making a living and that competition is fierce, etc. Another correspondent writes that because of mass emigration from Suwalk, the prices of houses had fallen drastically and that if someone did find a buyer for his house, he had to practically give it away. Statistics from all of the Russian provinces in show that the smallest number of Jewish families in need of Maot Hitim came from Suwalk province.

Until the beginning of the 20 th century, the basis for Suwalk's economy was agriculture. We shall write further on about the Jewish role in agriculture. Jews had a prominent role in fruit commerce and in horse trading. They were much less important in the selling of peat, which was mainly in gentile hands. Jewish participation in mills, tanning, brandy works and beer brewing was considerable. The important export from the province, lumber, via the Augustow canal, lay entirely in Jewish hands.

Jews played a pioneering role in this. This revived the economy of the entire region. The first firm in this area was M. Vaysberg in Suwalk. A local Russian-German information brochure stated that the Jews in Suwalk province were the pulse of the entire economic life and this is no exaggeration. Jews in agricultural settlements One of the main characteristics which differentiated the Jews of the province of Suwalk from the Jews of most of the settlements of Russia-Poland, was their high percentage of farmers.

For this reason, we are devoting a special chapter to this branch of the economy of Suwalk's Jews. According to E. Frenk, of all the provinces in the Kingdom of Poland, only the province of Plotzk surpassed the province of Suwalk in its percentage of Jews in agriculture. Frenk reports that in , According to a table by Lestschintsky [85] , Another famous Jewish researcher, Professor B. Brutskus, goes even further, claiming that the highest per cent of Jewish farmers were in Suwalk province. Shatzky writes that at the end of , Count Paskevitsh explained his plan to a delegation of Jews. In February of , he organized a committee whose purpose it was to work out a project for settling Jews on the land.

Shatzky quotes a very interesting letter to the head of the Kahal in Suwalk in which the author writes of the necessity of raising these funds as quickly as possible. A copy of a letter to the heads of the Kahal, found in the Dubnow Archives dated march , is an almost word-for-word repetition of the letter quoted by Dr. Since both letters are almost exactly alike in content, E.

Tcherikower has concluded, [92] that both letters were sent by the same person; once from Yedvobne and a second time from Warsaw. As to the difference in forenames of the head of the Suwalk Kahal, E. Therefore, I am writing this letter to urge you to speed up the preparation of the declarations for the province of Augustow to raise the charitable contributions so that the poor among us may be settled on the soil so that when the announcement is published, the emissaries from the province of Augustow will have their declarations in hand. I have also written about this today to the other provinces and to the esteemed Rabbi Mendl Shadaver and to the wealthy R'Matis Mintz, that they should be prepared. There is no other news at this time.

After writing the above letter, since I missed the Monday post, I received a report from people coming from your province that you had not completed sending out the declarations and that you had not yet established a fund to support the poor from among our people, and even heard people say that the heads of the Kahal had become negligent in this matter, and that everyone was busy with his own affairs and not concerned about this important subject. I simply cannot understand what you have in mind especially since this is the law of our holy Torah and the will of our gracious Count in whose protection and by whose grace, the grace of our exalted majesty the Czar, we live.

How is it possible that you do not think of the terrible consequences, God forbid, if you do not pay heed and you stubbornly refuse to benefit from the goodness of the Count and do not take to working the soil which is now the greatest good fortune for everybody, besides helping the poor to settle on a piece of land and thus lessen the number of unemployed idlers? But, whoever is conscious of God burns like a fire when he sees how our Jews continue to decline and when their condition is expected to worsen, I cannot rest in myself and I must arouse the conscience of my brothers, the children of Israel.

My friends, I am not a leader or a ruler, not a rabbi or a judge, but I have expressed myself in this way in order to assuage my anger and bitterness and have fulfilled my duty. I have written this letter at the home of Rabbi Zalman Pozner and was quite brief; for the above named wealthy rabbi told me to write more bad tidings we have translated this letter word for word. This letter to the Suwalk community, expressed the disappointment of Jewish communal workers in the lack of interest by wealthy men in the plan to settle Polish Jews on the soil. Saini was given this honour because there were already some Jewish villages in that district and also because of the fame of its rabbi.

Years later, when the Jews of Suwalk province became more involved in commerce, there were still many Jewish farmers. The name of the estate was Losovitz, and it was in Jewish hands for decades. At the end of the nineties, the writer and teacher, Y. Vays Yehosham Halivni worked there as a tutor. From his youth, he had despised buying and selling and preferred to live in his village close to the soil he loved. The well-known writer in his time, A. His wife, Sheynah Iseah, was of the old sort of Jewish housewives about whom poets have written. The retreating army Russian, at the time of the First World War plundered and burned Losevitsh; the Germans chopped down 60, trees of the Bramson forest and took over whatever there remained of the estate. The old Bramsons and Alexander died, and Volf.

Vilne , p. It should be added that many Jews feared to list their occupation as farmers in the census. Not only the large estates, but also the small ones used machinery, artificial fertilizer, etc. Jews owned estates run by modern methods. A large number of such estates were found in the districts of Kalverie, Vilkovishk, Mariampol and Nayshtat Vladislavov , not included in this work. In the Hebrew alphabet, it was written as Suvalk but on the title pages of old books and in old correspondence, etc. In a bill of divorce, it was spelled Syvalk with three vavs [Translator's note: obviously this note makes no sense since he is showing different Hebrew spellings of the word] 1.

According to the Brockhaus Lexicon, Leipzig , the figure is 12, sq. Return 2. Sudovos Suvalkojos Istorija. Jonas Totoraitis. Kaunas Return 3. New York , p. Return 4. Suduvos Suvalkijos Istorija. Kaunas Return 5. In a list of churches in this area, according to the Acts of the Vilna Synod, Suwalk is not mentioned. However, the name Suwalk appears in a second list from the same source in Totoraitis Return 7. Entsiklopedia, v. Jurtzenca , p. Erets Rusya u-meloah. Yehoshua Levinzohn. Vilne p. Return Keneset Yisrael.

Brackhaus Lexikon. Leipzig p. Entsiklopedia v. According to the same source, there were 92, people in Suwalk district, among them, 10, Jews. Totoraitis, p. Uznemune po Prusais, Augustinas Janulaitis. Kaunas p. Slovnik Geografitshni Krolevstvo Polskieg p. Janulaitis p. Slovnik Geografitshni p. Janulaitis, p. Slovnik Geografitshni; Totoraitis p. Holshe's book was unattainable so we quote from an article written by Dr. New York The same appears in Slovnik Geografitshni; in Janulaitis p. Brooklyn p. See note The same quotation from Holshe about the Suwalk market place also appears in Y. Jahrgang, Heft S. Legend has it that the Vilkovishk synagogue was built of materials donated by the wife of the starosta of Pren, Count Stefan Pata.

Azriel Meir Broda. Has, by the way, an approbation from the Vilna Gaon. Enziklopedia Judaika v. Vizshuni or Vizshun is a town in Lithuania. Entsiklopedia 5, p. Jewish Encyclopaedia 12, p. Article by M. Vilkovishk , p. Slovnik Geograitshni, p. Slovnik Geografitshni, p. Freiburg , p. Slovnik Geografitshni. Slovnik, p. A similar gathering took place in Warsaw in July At that time, one of the delegates from Lomza province was Avraham Simon of Saini. M 14, p.

Berlin Dzieje Handlu Zydowskiego na Ziemiach Polskich. Ignaz Schipper. Warszawa , p. In the article quoted, p. Breslau p. Ibid p. Pervaya Perepisi Namelenya Rasiskaia Imperiya. Suvalskaya Gebernia. Peterburg Brockhaus-Lexikon p. In the previously cited book by Lestschinsky, p. Berlin-Wien , S. Warsaw v. In an already cited article by Dr. Friedman, p. In an already cited book by B. Weinryb, p.

This competition with Jewish commerce did not last long. Schipper in his cited Polish book, p. Weinryb, ibid p. The Augustow canal connects the Nieman to the Visle. In it was completed. It cost About the writer, see further on. In a list of such orphans in the city of Aachen, there is the name of a boy from Suwalk, Shelomoh Fraydkovski. Berlin S; Tel-Aviv v. Entsek 10 p. Berlin p.

But Jewish Poland can also Poland produced Simon Dubnows Vilna the modes of Wesley School Case Summary through, exploring, and mapping. Lietuvos kodeksuose, Terminologija,Simon Dubnows Vilna. Other gathering places include Poland public libraries and the Poland Shopping Center, a Poland regional mall with Simon Dubnows Vilna stores.